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2. PHAM GIAO HOC:
Pham nay co tong cong 29 bai ke. Bai ke t so 1 en so 4 la moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 5 ch. Bai ke t so 5 en so 16, la moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 4 ch. Bai ke t so 17 en so 22 la moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 5 ch. Bai t so 23 en so 29, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 4 ch. Tat ca 29 bai ke tren eu at trong tam vao e tai "Giao Hoc". Y noi dan dat ngi tu hanh hay tinh tan tu tap ao nghiep, dt tr cac am cai, tam trong sang, tinh than nh tnh, mi co the tranh c cac kho. Va "Giao Hoc" con co ngha la giai thch ngi ngu muoi thay c ao ro rang. V nh ngi xuat gia hoc ao ma khong lo niem kinh tr gii, ch biet tham me li dng cung phung cho huyen than, c an no lai ngu khong nh en le vo thng. Ngi muon cau ao trc phai dt tr si me roi sau mi che phuc tam. Tam la nguon goc cua thien, ac. Muon dt tr tan goc ai duc phai che phuc tam. Tam an nh, y thong hieu mi ac ao c, nh bai ke so 4.

Chanh kien hoc vu tang

Th vi the gian minh.

S sinh phuc thien boi.

Chung bat oa ac ao

Dch:

Chanh kien luon trau doi,

La anh sang gi i.

Phc c tang ngan lan,

Chet khong oa ng ac.

3. PHAM A VAN:
Pham nay co 19 bai ke, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 5 ch. Tat ca 19 bai ke nay eu at trong tam vao e tai "a Van". Ngha la khuyen ngi nghe nhieu hoc rong th c bac thanh, c tr chanh giac. Cung nh c Phat nh hoc rong giao phap khong biet nham chan, phung hanh chanh ao khong co giai ai, tinh tan tr gii tu hue khong co phong dat, nen at en Niet Ban, cu the qua bai ke so 3.

a van nang tr u

Nang d nh vi hoan

Thien thuyet cam lo phap

T tr ac Ne Hoan.

Dch:

Nghe nhieu dt au lo

Luon vui trong thien nh.

Kheo noi cam lo phap

T mnh c Niet Ban.

4. PHAM OC TN:
Pham nay co het thay 18 bai ke. Trong o, bai ke t so 1 en so 3, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 5 ch; t bai ke so 4 en so 18, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 4 ch. Tat ca 18 bai ke nay at trong tam vao e tai "oc Tn". Ngha la on oc niem tin, ket qua e thanh lap ao, la nguyen nhan e tr ve tam nguyen cua mnh. V ngi cha biet ao c, khong tu giai thoat, c quen thoi ng nganh, doi tra, tham li, buong lung theo tnh y kho mong c giai thoat kho au. Neu ngi co long tin, tam kien co, tho tr ngu gii lam Phat T tai gia biet tu hanh lien c tr hue va hanh lanh, lan lan ngi ay vt thoat sanh t nh bai ke so 7.

Tn chi gi gii.

Tue y nang hanh.

Kien phu o tue

Tung th thoat uyen.

Dch:

Long tin va gii luat

Tue quan sieng tu hanh,

Bac trng phu tr tue,

Qua c vc t sinh.

5. PHAM GII THAN:
Pham nay co 16 bai ke, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 4 ch. Tat ca 16 bai ke nay eu at trong tam vao e tai "Gii Than". Y noi gi ieu khuyen ran, khong pham ieu cam, ve sau khoi an nan. Do vay, ngi hanh ao phai lay gii lam can ban, lay nhiep tam lam cong hanh, coi nhe than the, quy trong chan ly, xa than cau ao. An uong la e duy tr mang song, tu tap thien nh. Phai hng en muc tieu ac ao ma tu hoc ch quan, dt tr vong tng. Con neu ch lo cung dng than the, chu theo oi hoi th lam sao thoat c kho au? Cho nen c Phat day bai ke so 8.

Ty Kheo lap gii.

Thu nhiep ch can

Thc tri t tiet

Ngu y linh ng.

Dch:

Ty Kheo gi gii.

Nhiep gi cac can

An biet tiet o,

Ngu ngh co chng

6. PHAM DUY NIEM:

Pham nay co tong cong 12 bai ke.bai ke so 1 co 6 cau, moi cau co 5 ch. T bai so 2 en so 12, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 5 ch. Tat ca 12 bai ke nay eu at trong tam vao e tai "Duy Niem". Ngha la hay can than oi vi nhng nguyen nhan gay ra toi loi. Cung co ngha nhng ieu nho t trc phai gi, trong phai t mnh suy ngh cho an on mi hieu c ao. Nh "Mang ngi mong manh sang con toi mat. Vo thng nghiep bao khong hen cht en. Ch can quan sat than t ai do au ma co, tam hp thanh roi se hoai diet. at, nc, gio, la se tra ve cho at, nc, gio, la! Hay t duy tnh giac, tam vang lang khong co vong tng, chuyen niem Tam Bao, bo th, gii c. Neu co the biet c le vo thng th cung nh thay Phat! Ngh en viec ngay mai ch la vong tng vo ch." Do vay, c Phat day bai ke so 11.

Ky tri t giac y

Th vi phap e t

Thng ng tru da niem

Phat d phap cap chung.

Dch:

a biet mnh giac ngo

Mi la e t Phat

Thng phai ngay em nh

Phat, Phap, va chung Tang

7. PHAM T NHAN:

Pham nay co het thay 18 bai ke. Bai ke t 1 en 6, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 4 ch. Rieng bai so 7 va so 10 th moi bai co 6 cau, moi cau co 4 ch. Con bai so 8, so 9, so 11 en so 18, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 4 ch. Tat ca 18 bai ke nay eu at trong tam vao e tai "T Nhan". Y noi bac ai nhan c bao trum vo lng. ieu nay khuyen chung ta c lam ngi phai biet thng yeu cac loai chung sanh e nuoi song cho mnh. V khong co ai la khong tham song s chet, cho nen giet chung sanh nuoi song ban than mnh toi loi rat nang. Do vay, c lam than ngi rat la kho , nen phai thc hanh tam t bi oi vi moi loai chung sanh th i i se c an vui nh bai ke so 1, c Phat day:

Vi nhan bat sat.

Thng nang nhiep than

Th x bat t

S thch vo hoan

Dch:

Lam nhan khong giet

Thng hay nhiep than,

Cho o bat t.

i au khong hoa.

8. PHAM NGON NG:

Pham nay co 12 bai ke. Bai ke t so 1 en so 4, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 4 ch. T bai so 5 en so 12, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 5 ch. Tat ca 12 bai ke nay eu at trong tam vao e tai "Ngon Ng". Ngha la: con ngi s d dung li noi phat ra e am luan phai ung vi chan ly, cho nen phai chu y than trong, gn gi li noi cho hoa nha, nghiem tuc, ch noi nhng li ac, chi rua mang nhiec nhau la t hai cho mnh. Do vay, c Phat lien day bai ke so 3.

Phu s chi sinh

Phu tai khau trung

S d tram than

Do ky ac ngon

Dch:

Pham ngi i

Gm ao trong mieng

S d chem mnh,

Do li noi ac.

9. PHAM LI DNG:

Pham nay thuoc pham th 33 trong ban Han, co 20 bai ke. Trong o, bai ke so 1, 2 va so 18 th moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 5 ch; cac bai ke con lai, moi bai eu 4 cau, moi cau 4 ch. Tat ca 20 bai ke at trong tam vao e tai "Li dng". Ngha la khuyen ngi phong tham muon. V tham muon lam ton c cua mnh, cho nen luc nao trong tam cua ho ay day xan tham, tat o, gian can, mang chi, tru rua, om long tham oc v.v...khong the ngh ban lam cho ue sanh. Do vay, la e t cua Phat nen phai sang suot ch co tham lam, tat o v.v... dau mnh coi nao i chang na. V the, c Phat day bai ke so 4.

Tuy hu thien duc

Tue xa bat tham

Nhao ly an ai

Vi Phat e t.

Dch:

Tuy duc lac coi tri.

Sang suot bo khong tham

Vui vien ly an ai

La e t Phat a.

10. PHAM NE HOAN:

Pham nay thuoc pham th 36 trong ban Han, co tong cong 35 bai ke. Trong o, bai ke so 1 va so 13 en so 19, va ke t so 21 en ke so 35 la moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 5 ch. Bai ke t so 2 en so 7, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 4 ch. Bai ke t so 8 en so 12, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 6 ch. Rieng bai ke so 20 co 6 cau, moi cau co 5 ch. Tat ca 35 bai ke eu at trong tam vao e tai "Ne Hoan". Ngha la tr ve ao ln, tch diet o c sinh t. Nh bai ke so 24, c Phat day:

Li thang bat tuc th

Tuy thang du phuc kho

ng t cau thang phap

D thang vo s sanh

Dch:

Thang ngi khong u cay,

Tuy thang, van lai kho

Phai cau phap t thang,

Thang roi c vo sanh.

11. PHAM SINH T:

Pham nay thuoc pham th 37 trong ban Han, co tong cong 18 bai ke, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 5 ch. Tat ca 18 bai ke nay eu at trong tam vao e tai "Sinh T". Y noi cac ngi co vong linh tuy theo s tu hanh ma chuyen sanh. Nh bai ke so 3, c Phat day:

Th than vi t vat,

Tinh than vo hnh phap.

Gia linh t phuc sinh

Toi phc bat bai vong

Dch:

Than nay la vat chet

Tinh than vat vo hnh

Than chet, thc tai sinh.

Toi phc van khong mat.

12. PHAM AO LI:

Pham nay thuoc pham th 38 trong ban Han, co tong cong 19 bai ke. Trong o, co bai ke so 16, 17 la moi bai co 6 cau, moi cau co 5 ch. Cac bai e con lai la moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 5 ch. Tat ca 19 bai ke eu at trong tam vao e tai "ao Li". Ngha la bat c nhng ai hay Cha, Me, Thay To khai m con ng hanh thien, diet c tien khien oan trai e en con ng chanh. Nh bai ke so 1, c Phat day:

Nhan tri phung ky thng

Quan phu s ao s

Tn gii th van tue.

Chung kiet s sinh an.

Dch:

Ngi biet th bac tren

Vua, Cha, Thay, ao S.

Co tn, gii, th, tue.

Chet tot, tai sinh an.

13. PHAM KIET TNG:

Pham nay thuoc pham th 39 trong ban Han, co 19 bai ke, moi bai co 4 cau, moi cau co 5 ch. Tat ca 19 bai ke nay eu at trong tam vao e tai "Kiet Tng". Y noi neu mnh tu hanh tot ep bo c cai ac va tu c cai thien th mnh se c hng canh tot ep. Nh bai ke so 5, c Phat day:

Kh ac tung tu thien

T su tri t tiet

Bat dam n sac

Th vi toi kiet tng

Dch:

Bo ac theo ieu thien,

Tranh ru, biet tiet che.

Khong dam vi n sac,

La toi thng kiet tng.

III b. Nhng Pham Giong Nhau Ve Van Ban Ch Han Va Ch Pali:

hai van ban Han va Pali eu co 26 pham tng ng vi nhau. Tc la 26 pham con lai cua ban Han hoan toan giong vi 26 pham cua ban Pali. ieu nay chng minh rang: Du hai van ban thuoc hai ng he Han va Pali nhng noi dung e tai c ban cua tng pham eu giong nhau. Tuy nhien, so lng bai ke cua moi pham oi luc co s chenh lech, co pham bang nhau, co pham nhieu, pham t. Nh chung ta eu biet kinh Phap Cu la tap hp nhng bai ke nam rai rac trong cac Kinh- Luat- Luan. Co luc ngha cua mot bai ke ma c Phat lai tuy theo can tanh cua chung sanh nen trnh bay trong nhieu trng hp khac nhau. Do vay, oi khi ngha cua tng ke co khac nhng noi dung c ban van khong co g la. e tm hieu iem nhat quan trong kinh, ngi viet xin lan lt gii thieu tng pham mot.

1/ PHAM SONG YEU:

Pham nay cua hai van ban gom nhng bai ke song oi nhau, bao ham cac noi dung oi lap nhau, gia tot va xau, gia thien va bat thien, c bieu lo qua cac hanh ong cua chnh mnh a tao va gat lanh ket qua t nhng hanh ong tao tac ay. Vi ban Han co 22 bai ke va ban Pali co 20 bai ke, ta co the lap bang oi chieu nh sau:

 

Han

Pali

Han

Pali

Han

Pali

Han

Pali

Han

Pali

1

1

5

5

9

9

13

13

19

17

2

2

6

6

10

10

14

14

20

18

3

3

7

7

11

11

17

15

21

19

4

4

8

8

12

12

18

16

22

20

Qua bang so sanh tren, ta thay ban Han co them hai cau 15, 16 la mot cap cau oi ngha vi nhau. Khuyen con ngi tu hanh co gang t sach tan, ch co buong lung, phong tung. Nhn vao bang, vi 20 bai ke co so cau tng ng vi nhau. Ngha la noi dung cua tng bai ke cua hai van ban hoan toan giong nhau. e hieu ro hn nghi viet xin trch dan va phan tch bai ke th nhat cua hai van ban e tm iem giong nhau:

Tam vi phap bon,

Tam ton tam s.

Trung tam niem ac.

Tc ngon tc hanh.

Toi kho t truy,

Xa lch vu triet

Dch:

Tam la goc muon phap

Tam ng au, sai s

Trong tam khi niem ac

Noi nang hay hanh ong

Toi kho lien theo sau

Nh xe lan theo vet.

 
Manopubbangama dhamma Y dan au cac phap
manosettha manomaya Y lam chu, y tao
manasa ce padutthena Neu vi y vo nhiem
bhasati va karoti va, Noi len hay hanh ong
tato nam dukkhamanveti Kho nao bc theo sau
cakkam va vahato padam Nh xe, chan vat keo

Qua bai ke tren, ban Han dch "Tam la goc muon phap". Con ban Pali dch "Y dan au cac phap". Dch "Tam hay Y" ngha van la mot. V "Manopubbangama" ngha la do tam hng dan nen goi la y. Do vay, "Tam dan au" hay "Y dan au" eu hieu nh nhau. Bi muon s muon le i eu do tam ngi tao ra, ma Phat hoc goi la phai duy tam. ao Phat chia tam ra nhieu th, nhng rut lai co hai th tam trong yeu nhat: 1. Vong tam, cai tam ngh ngi lan mang xang bay. 2. Chn tam; cai tam nguyen lai van sang lang tinh thong, ay u mau nhiem khong can phai ngh mi biet. Cung nh tam gng trong suot, vat g qua no la soi to ngay, khac han vi cai tam phai suy ngh mi biet, phai hoc hoi mi hay. Noi en tam, chung ta eu lien tng en tam s. V co tam th khong the khong co tam s, cho nen tam s ay chnh la Phap- Dhamma, bao trum ca tot va xau, ca thien va bat thien. Nhng oi vi bai ke nay, Phap- Dhamma la nhng tam bat thien, het thay moi s moi vat the gian eu la gia ca, eu do cai vong tam tao ra ca, nen goi la phap tran. Tam dan au moi hanh ong va tac dung nh thanh phan chu yeu trong khi tac hanh cung nh trong khi quyet nh hoat ong. o chnh tam ieu khien tao tac hanh ong bang than, li va y th kho nao lien (bc) theo sau, nh xe lan theo vet (nh xe, chan vat keo), ngha eu giong nhau. V ch "triet" c hieu cai vet banh xe i qua, con "Pada" co the dch la chan, dau, vet. Tuy gia hai ban thuoc hai he ng van Han va Pali nhng noi dung va y ngha hoan toan giong nhau.

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