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Highlands Ranch High School - Mr. Sedivy
Highlands Ranch, ColoradoRise of Nation State England

Rise of Nation State England
The Crusades -
King Richard Lion Heart, Pope Urban

Richard I the Lion Heart (1189 - 1199)
The crown of England passed from Henry II to his 32-year-old son Richard, a.k.a. Lion Heart. Richard I had spent six months of his ten-year-reign abroad.

Coronation of Richard I
A page from the Latin chronicle describing the coronation of Richard I.

Saucy Castle, Chateau Gaillard
The "Saucy Castle" was built under the supervision of Richard I in the 1190s.
Philip II of France seized the castle from King John in 1204.

Palestine was under the rule of Muslims in the 7th century. Christian pilgrims from Europe were not stopped from visiting there. During the 11th century, the situation changed. Palestine and the neighboring countries of Syria and Asia Minor were overrun by Turks from the great plains of central Asia. These Turks were Muslims, like the Arabs, but they were not so willing to live in peace with Christians.

Pope Urban
In November 1095, Pope Urban held a Church Council at Clermont in France. Speaking with great passion, he urged the proud nobles and knights of Europe to go and free Byzantium and the Holy Land from the Saracens, as Muslims were often called. Peter the Hermit and the Pope started the first Crusade. Cleverly, Pope Urban II said that he would forgive the sins of all people who went and fought in the Holy Land.

Pope Urban urged:
"Christ himself will be your leader ... Wear his cross as your badge. If you are killed your sins will be pardoned ... Let those who have been fighting against their own brothers and kinsfolk now fight lawfully against the barbarians."

As Urban spoke, there was a great shout of "Deus le volt!" (God wills it!). Knights welcomed heavenly salvation with their swords. All volunteers sewed large crosses on their clothing. Latin for cross is "crux," where we get crusade (war of the cross).

Pope Urban at 1st Crusade
Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
In order to join the crusade, William I's eldest son, Robert, pawned Normandy to his brother William II.

Jerusalem Captured
Jerusalem was captured. Jerusalem was in Christian hands and all of Europe rejoiced. Most of the crusaders returned home, but a few hundred knights settled on the conquered lands in Palestine and Syria. The Muslim population had to pay taxes and give half their crops to the crusader settlers. Duke Godfrey became ruler of Jerusalem and overlord of the other Christian territories. He refused to be called king, saying he would not have a royal crown in the city where Jesus had worn the crown of thorns. But, Godfrey soon died and his brother Baldwin took the title of King of Jerusalem in 1100.

Sultan Saladin / Third Crusade
Edessa and the surrounding area were recaptured by the Saracens in 1144. During the next 40 years, the Kingdom of Jerusalem grew steadily weaker. Finally in 1187, the Turkish Sultan Saladin overwhelmed the crusader-settlers in a battle near the Sea of Galilee. When news of the disaster reached Europe a Third Crusade was organized. To raise money for ships, soldiers and equipment, Richard put heavy taxes on his subjects.

"I would sell the city of London, if only I had a buyer."
- Richard I

Richard I with Saladin the Saracen
Left: Richard I is shown mounted for combat during the Third Crusade.
Right: His adversary, Saladin the Saracen.

They arrived at Acre to find the other crusaders already besieging it. Some were in a poor way, suffering from fever, but Richard's appearance gave them fresh heart. The first great obstacle had been overcome. Philip decided he had done enough. He returned to France, leaving behind 10,000 knights under the Duke of Burgundy. Philip had no real interest in crusading. Richard had outshone him as a soldier.

Knights of King Richard I battle Saladin
The knight at the left bears the arms of Richard I, while the shield of the knight
on the right represents the infidel Saladin.

King Richard's Adventures
They were twelve miles from Jerusalem. Richard was now so short of men and supplies that he was unable to attack it. He got within sight of its walls, but he shielded his eyes and refused to look, knowing he could not capture the Holy City. Then, there was some bad news for Richard. His brother John was plotting with Philip of France and his kingdom was in danger.

King Richard at Saracen
A grim scene of Richard Coeur de Lion massacring his Saracen hostages in the Holy Land. From his balcony, Richard complacently observes the gruesome spectacle. Headless corpses are piled up beneath a platform on which two blindfolded men are about to be beheaded. Others await their turn, while soldiers lead the next victims to the ladder. Click painting for an enlargement.

The Crusaders set sail for home, but Richard's adventures did not end there. While traveling overland from Venice, he was arrested by Duke Leopold of Austria. They were enemies, despite fighting together on the crusade. Richard was handed over to the German emperor, Henry VI, who claimed 150,000 silver marks as ransom. (Equal to millions of dollars today.)

Richard was released after 13 months of imprisonment. He returned to England and punished those who had supported his rebellious brother, John. Two months later, he sailed for France, where Philip had taken advantage of his absence to attack his lands. Richard was furious and determined to recover his losses from a fellow crusader. One by one Lion-heart recaptured his castles.

Richard met an untimely death. Carelessly, he rode without full armor near the walls of a besieged town and was struck in the shoulder by a bolt from a cross-bow. The wound turned septic and he died in 1199.

Richard Lion Heart
Tomb-effigy of King Richard I at Fontevrault Abbey.

Fourth Crusade
The Fourth Crusade never reached the Holy Land. In 1229, Jerusalem was recovered by Emperor Frederick II of Germany. Rather than fight the Saracens, he made peace with them. Jerusalem remained in European hands for 15 years, but was lost for good in 1244.

The Children's Crusade
In 1212, the Children's Crusade was led by a French shepherd boy of 12, who believed that God had chosen him to free the Holy Land from the Turks! He persuaded thousands of children to follow him to Marseilles, where some dishonest seamen promised to transport his army. Some died in shipwrecks. The rest were sold in the Saracen slave markets.

Map of the Crusades
A 15th-century map depicting the saintly King Louis IX of France
on the Seventh and Eighth Crusades. Louis IX stops at various cities in
his pursuit of the infidel, finally succumbing to plague at Tunis.
Click the map for an enlargement.

For more information about the Crusades, please see:
The Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages

On returning to Europe, some educated crusaders helped to spread the superior knowledge of the Muslims - especially in medicine, math, and architecture. During the Crusades, European people learned more about the eastern parts of the world. When they returned to Europe, they took back with them many new things including foods, spices, silk, and paper. They learned about medicine, mathematics, and astronomy from the Arabs, and trade between east and west began to grow.

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Mr. Sedivy's Lecture Notes & Historical Info

The Celts
| Gallic He-Men | Celtic Culture, Trade, Religion, Women |
| Threat of the Celts - Celtic Battles and Conquests |

- Rise of Nation State England -
| Roman Conquest of Britain | Christianity in Britain |
| Customs: Thanes, Churls, Thralls, Wergeld, Folk-Moot |
| Dark Ages: Alfred the Great, Edward the Elder, Athelstan |
| The Return of the Vikings |
| Kings of Britain: Aethelred, Cnut, Edward the Confessor |
| Bayeaux Tapestry, William the Conqueror,
Edward the Confessor, Harold Godwinson, Harold II
| The Crusades: Richard Lion Heart, Pope Urban |
| King John, Innocent III, Archbishop Stephen Langton |
| Magna Carta / First Parliament |

Wales and Scotland
| Wales: Edward I, Llewellyn, Snowdonia |
| Scotland: Alexander III, John Balliol,
William Wallace, Robert Bruce, King Edward II

The 100 Years War
| Edward III, Longbows at Crecy, Edward IV, Black Prince |
| Henry V, King Charles VI, Battle at Calais, Treaty of Troyes |

More Information
| Other Kings of the Dark and Middle Ages:
William II, Henry I, Henry II
| The British Monarchy's Peerage: Dukes, Viscounts,
Marquess, Earls, Baronets, and Barons

Class Activities
Roman Conquest Comparison
Battle of Agincourt

Related Information
Mr. Sedivy's World History - The Middle Ages
The Complete Bayeux Tapestry
Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages / Crusades
The Hundred Years War
King Henry VIII
The Interesting Life of Elizabeth I
The Stuarts - James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II
Oliver Cromwell



Highlands Ranch High School 9375 South Cresthill Lane Highlands Ranch, Colorado 80126 303-471-7000

Mr. Sedivy's History Classes
| Colorado History | American Government | Advanced Placement Modern European History | Rise of Nation State England | World History |
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