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Highlands Ranch High School - Mr. Sedivy
Highlands Ranch, Colorado

- World History -
National Monarchies: Spain

National Monarchies
During the 1500s and 1600s, monarchs had more control
and authority than medieval rulers had.


Ferdinand and Isabella (1469 - 1516)
United Aragon (Ferdinand) and Castille (Isabella) with their marriage. There were difficulties with unification. The nobles did not want to give up all the power they had gained. Nobles were removed from important positions, and castles were destroyed. To get some noble support, nobles were given important titles that had no power.

The "Catholic Kings" persecuted Muslims and Jews (tortured and burned Jews at the stake). In 1492 Jews were kicked out of Spain. This weakened the economy since the kings got rid of Jewish business leaders and Muslim agricultural innovations.

Since Prince Rudolph I of Hapsburg had taken control of Austria in the 12th Century, the Hapsburgs had taken over lots of land by pushing out weak lords, and arranging marriages to get more land.

Charles V (1516 - 1556)
Charles V was the grandson of Ferdinand and Isabell. In 1519 Charles V united Spain with the Austrian Hapsburgs and was named Holy Roman Emperor. Spain's wealth increased from expeditions to the Americas.

Charles V with Dog
TITIAN: Charles V of Spain, ruler of the largest and richest empire of his day.

Charles was challenged by German Lutheran princes who didn't accept his authority, and by Ottoman Turks Muslims. Charles took it upon himself as Holy Roman Emperor to protect Christian lands from Muslims. He gave up his throne in 1556 and split the land. He gave his son, Philip II, the Netherlands, Spain, and Spanish land in the Americas. Charles V retired to a monastery.

Philip II (1556 - 1598)
Philip II was an absolute monarch; he had total control. Philip continued religious persecution, the Spanish Inquisition, killing about 25,000. Protestants had to convert to Catholicism. If they didn't, they may be tortured or executed. Protestantism declined in Spain.

King Philip IIOld Philip II
Left: TITIAN: Philip II.
Right: Portrait of Philip II in his old age.

After a Muslim rebellion, their children were taken and put in Christian homes. Philip beat the Turks near Greece in a naval battle (because of Turkish pirates) at Lepanto in 1571. He conquered Portugal in 1580. The Dutch rebelled in 1566 because they didn't like his policies. Philip had raised taxes and sent the Inquisition to quell Calvinism. The Netherlands became independent under William of Orange in 1581.

Philip married Mary I (Bloody Mary) of England. She was Catholic - Philip wanted to convert England to Catholicism. She had no children. When Mary died, Philip tried to marry Elizabeth, with no luck, and he became mad at Elizabeth. She sent troops to help the Netherlands during the rebellion, and she sent pirates to raid Spanish ships.

Princess MaryMary I, Bloody Mary
Left: Princess Mary. By 1544 Mary had survived humiliation after her mother's
divorce, and was restored to her place as successor in February 1544.
Right: Mary I arrived to marry Philip II at Southampton with a peaceful armada.
She hoped to win England for Catholicism.
Mary I
Philip and Mary

Francis Drake
Drake sent the Spanish ("invincible") Armada to attack England. The big and slow Spanish ships were drilled.

Francis DrakeMap: Spain is head of Europe
Left: Francis Drake, the sea commander whom the Spaniards most feared.
He fought against their First Armada in the Revenge.
Right: A 16th-century map depicting Spain as the head of Europe.
Click Spain's head for an enlargement.

Spanish Chart English Chart
Left: A 16th-century Spanish chart showing the English Channel.
Right: The homeward course of the First Armada shown on an English chart.

Spanish Decline and the Cost of War

Decline of Spain (by 1700)

"The Great Protestant Wind from the north smashed the Papist idolaters on the rocks." The English outnumbered the Spaniards. The Spanish navy was to meet up - one from the south and one from the east. It didn't happen because they had no way to communicate with one another.

Cost of War

Neglect of trade and industry.

There was no real merchant class. The Inquisition had killed off many business leaders. The Spanish placed a low value on commerce and industry. Young men were encouraged to do other things besides become merchants.

Agricultural changes. Because wool was profitable, most farmland was used for raising sheep, therefore there was no food.

Dependence on temporary wealth. Most of their wealth was from Aztec and Inca gold. They didn't invest it, but spent it on wars and to import food and goods.

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National Monarchies:

Ferdinand and Isabella, Charles V, Philip II,
Francis Drake, Decline of Spain, and the Cost of War

The Bourbons, Henry IV
Louis XIII, Richelieu, King Louis XIV

King Louis XIV

Richard III
The Tudors - Henry VI, Henry VII

King Henry VIII

The Interesting Life of Queen Elizabeth I

Mary, Queen of Scots

The Stuarts - James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II
Oliver Cromwell

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Historical Periods of
World History Class Study

| Prehistory | Mesopotamia & Phoenicians |
| Ancient Egypt | Greece | Rome |
| Medieval History | Renaissance and Reformation |
| Exploration | National Monarchies |
| The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment |
| Colonial America and American Revolution |
| The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era

Cool Clicks & Related Links:
(Hit your "Back" button to return to this page)

Early Modern Europe: England
Queen Elizabeth I

Cultural Phenomenon of Henry V

The list of links will grow with student participation!
Please e-mail pertinent URLs to Mr. Sedivy at:



Highlands Ranch High School 9375 South Cresthill Lane Highlands Ranch, Colorado 80126 303-471-7000

Mr. Sedivy's History Classes
| Colorado History | American Government | Modern European History | Advanced Placement European History | Rise of England | World History |
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