"poverty" A SUBJECT

child labour restrictions and reforms are causing child begging and other odds grow. Is child labour reform realy effective.

EMPLOYMENT: Unemployment level is nearly 40-45% in poor countries among which rural village illiterates/ semi-literate contributes major percentage. Employment is major source to eradicate or minimize poverty as this gives buying power to population and increases their per capita income results to help increasing direct and indirect taxes to Government for development program. To any development programs finance is required, that finance should come from taxes and savings, if opted to loan from International Monetary Fund or World Bank will only aggravate problems and will push further to poverty. Many poor and developing nations are in debt due to the money lending programs by international financial institutions.

Emphasis to be given to natural and traditional sources such as tourism, agricultural and related cottage industries, arts and crafts for generating employment, this can consume high unemployment among illiterates and semi-literate. Populations live in rural villages with their traditional art value still they are poor and hand to mouth. Unable to use their traditional skill due to non-exploring and insufficient measures by local governments for its marketing. . Most affected area of poverty is rural population as agriculture is their main source of income. Mainly depend on the small land and god for rain. Work for 4-5 months and balance of the year they remain unemployed looking up for rain. This blank period need to be utilized by engaging them to their traditional arts and crafts or agricultural products.

Following I suggest as steps to improve cottage and small sector products make more attractive:

Attract designers and private sectors to bring best knowledge and invest to improve demand in local market as well as overseas.

2. Promotions and marketing to be strengthened by Facility of fair / exhibitions/ advertisements in professional way.

3. Fixing minimum norms of quality standard. And gradation of products according to its quality, a- grade products for exports and high local market, grade- b also export and medium range markets, c- grade in local market and d- grade in off sales and cheap market. So that, products can be allocated according to the buying capacity of consumers.

4. Minimum 15-20 % fixed as quota each stores/ shop with better profits to keep for sales, this will sure be healthy to promote sales. Thus, each store is attracted to put such products in its stores.

5. Arranging best quality of raw materials should be the priority and make available at best possible price to make the products competitive.

6. To avoid shortage if possible also imports the raw material. Mediators should be avoided to cut down cost.

7. In participation with international standard institutes to open up advanced institutions for improving products/ designs of international standard, will be boost to the exports and local marketing.

8. Tax rebate to the promoters/ manufactures will be incentive to its promotions.

9. World Trade Organization and its free trade missionary should understand the importance to boost this sector. Free market and trade will further aggravate poverty level in countries, which have dense population with high level of illiteracy. It I see as unfair and one-way and results unequal free trade. Small scale industries are washed away by intrusion of multinational products or to meet competition with them opt to unfair practices or hiring child labor, or reducing work force, cheating workers on overtime pay, imposing merciless and unsafe working conditions to bring down their costs nevertheless is far away and are lost to imported goods. Free import or exports is beneficial to only countries, which have good stand on exports to make good balance of payment and receipt. Lot of poverty we see around the world is related to the way of global markets and trading practices. For promoting products WTO need to reconsider its strategy of free market, present system will only help developed countries to dump over production to poor countries and results collapse of economy. It need to come forward to help generate employment:

Special tax may be introduced and levied from all resources involved in exports. Levy of the tax should be on basis of consumption of workers for producing items, lesser the workers higher the tax.

The cottage and agricultural industries (non auto plant) should be spared from the tax. This also helps to curtail high international competition due to auto machine products.

To encourage Agricultural and cottage industries WTO should work out the measures by fixing at least minimum quota of these items that to be imported. Which should be binding to all importing countries. This way it promotes these sectors and saves its employees

Levied tax should be allocated and contributed to Appropriate Governments to generate employment, uplift standard of living and social security to workers of unorganized sector.

Most affected area of poverty is rural population as agriculture is their main source of income. Mainly depend on the small land and god for rain. Work for 4-5 months and balance of the year they remain unemployed looking up for rain

(As per World Bank figures: Almost 180,000 people are added to the urban population each day and It is estimated that there are almost a billion poor people in the world, of this over 750 million live in urban areas without adequate shelter and basic services. 1/3 of people in developing countries living in cities, live in slum/squatter settlements). Migrating rural labor force creating shortage to enhance labor cost. In addition, Minimum wage regulations and loss making sector entice farmers to sell off their lands to industrial and housing business owners. Click for more informations Rural Migration and Urbanization

Unemployment rate (most recent) by country nationmaster.com

Employment is an economic source that decides the country's growth. Education should relate to employment generation

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