Oliver's Site

2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man














Table of Contents | 1. Earth | 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man | 3. Civilisation | 4. Fertile Crescent | 5. Egypt | 6. Indus Valley | 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho) | 8. Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians | 9. New World (B. C./Pre-Columban) | 10. Greeks and Persians | 11. Rome ( - B. C. - A. D. 96) | 12. Saul of Tarsus | 13. Rome ( - A. D. 275) | 14. Rome and Byzantium (Nova Roma) | 15. Islam | 16. Charlemagne | 17. Vikings | 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors | 19. Reformation, Enlightenment (1300s -1700s) | 20. Mid-1700s - early 1900s | 21. The Great War | 22. Inter-War Years | 23. The War in Europe and Africa | 24. Second World War | 25. War in the Pacific | 26. Defeating the Axis in Europe and Africa | 27. End of Japanese Imperialism | 28. Ending the War | 29. Conquest of Space | 30. Averting Nuclear War | 31. End of Empire | 32. Man on the Moon | 33. Arms Race and Limitation | 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain | 35. Outer Space | 37. | 42.





Continued from previous page, 1. Earth

 
 
 
 
 
Archbishop Ussher
 
James Ussher by Sir Peter Lely.jpg
James Ussher (1581 – 1656), Anglican Primate of All Ireland and Archbishop of Armagh from (1625 and 1656), in painting before 1680.
 
 
Related image
Annales Veteris Testamenti, a prima mundi origine deducti. Published in 1650.
 
 
Image result for archbishop ussher of armagh - Epistle to the Reader in English
 
First page
 
 
File:Annals of the World page 1.jpg
 
The Annals of the Old Testament, From the beginning of the World.
 
English translation of the Latin Annals (1658).
 
In the beginning God created Heaven and Earth, Gen. 1, v. 1. Which beginning of time, according to our Chronologie, fell upon the entrance of the night preceding the twenty third day of Octob. in the year of the Julian Calendar 710.
 
Epistle to the Reader
 
I deduce that the time from the creation until midnight, January 1, 1 AD was 4003 years, seventy days and six hours.
 
 
 
 
 
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Charles Darwin

 

Charles Robert Darwin (1809 - 1882),

English naturalist and geologist

 

 

Darwin's theory of evolution:

 

All species are descended from a few common ancestors. Through a struggle for existence there is a process of natural selection that results in a branching pattern of evolution. 

 

 

 

HMS Beagle, the British ship in which Darwin made a five-year voyage around the world.  

 

 

 

The Beagle set out from Plymouth on 27 December 1831 and returned to England on 2 October 1836.   

 

 

 

Darwin's five-year voyage round the world in the HMS Beagle (1831 - 1836)

 

 

 

Galopagos Islands of Ecuador

 

 

 

 

On the Origin of Species (1859)

 

Origial full title: 

 

On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life

 

 

 

 

The Descent of Man, and Selection in

Relation to Sex (1871)

 

 

 

 

The Expression of the Emotions in

Man and Animals (1872)

 

 

 

The Voyage of Charles Darwin

 

Documentary recounts the life of Darwin

 

7 episodes totalling approximately 7 hours

 

Part 1.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1hoDaxVIVPE 

 

Part 2.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qG_PsHFHGDQ 

 

Part 3.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jACHjo_zwKU 

 

Part 4.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPOEzFcNb-E 

 

Part 5.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6SMxSzsgNa4 

 

Part 6. and 7.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zXY-EWZU5qo

 

 

 

The Voyage that Shook the World  

 

Documentary (2014)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98WIGM0kwhU

 

 

 

Evolution

 

First three parts of a 7-part PBS Documentary

 

Part 1. Darwin's Dangerous Idea 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MCOc7Xqj-kQ 

 

Part 2. Great Transformations

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L5DaOlpXtmQ 

 

Part 3. Extinction

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlgnHOSEyFU 

 

 

 

Darwin's Struggle

 

The Evolution of The Origin of Species

 

BBC documentary on Darwin's 1859 book 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TSVsXrAJEuc 

 

 

 

The Genius of Charles Darwin

 

3-part documentary with Richard Dawkins (2008) 

 

Part 1. Life, Darwin & Everything

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ptV9sNezEvk 

 

Part 2. The Fifth Ape

 

(The five apes are the Orangutan, Gorilla, Chimpanzee, Bonobo and Man)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=shkWhBVfe3o 

 

Part 3. God Strikes Back

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cARUZyBJtdY 

 

 

 

Evolution - What Darwin Never Knew

 

NOVA PBS Documentary 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AYBRbCLI4zU 

 

 

 

Did Darwin get it wrong?

 

Documentary discusses two scientific theories of evolution  

 

   -   the view of gradual evolution over a long period and

 

   -   the view of long static periods ending with sudden and dramatic evolutionary change    

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KtYxfmt0svA 

 

 

Evolution

 

Discussion on the BBC radio weekly Thursday programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

15 April 1999 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00545gl

 

 

 

 

Galapagos

 

Three-part BBC documentary with David Attenborough

 

Episode 1

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rec-MXpu0ps

 

Episode 2

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6oB3hDSILRA

 

Episode 3

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2T0nagdeOus

 

 

 

Galápagos

 

Three-part 2006 BBC documentary

1. Born of Fire

Part 1 is divided into five parts; the first part has been Removed from You Tube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I974jKrR4VQ&index=1&list=PL38919D37CCF1B1F7

2. Islands that Changed the World

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yhLLR9-V990

3. Forces of Change

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jzYRgTjp1ec

 

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Thomas Henry Huxley

 

Thomas Henry Huxley (1825 - 1895)

English biologist, advovate of Darwin's

theory of evolution

 

 

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Alfred Russel Wallace

 

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823 - 1913),

English naturalist, geographer,

anthropologist and biologist

 

 

The Forgotten Voyage

 

The Story of Alfred Russel Wallace


British documentary (1:12:56)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z1eQ6DadodA 

 

 

The Wallace Line

 

Map of the line drawn by Wallace in 1859 to note the division of Asiatic and Australian species.  

 

 

Wallace's Line

 

Introduction

 

2016

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77l1ZCDing0

 

 

Defining the meaning of Wallace's Line

 

Ernst Mayr

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KKZBAZKnX6g

 

 

 

Bill Bailey's Jungle Hero

 

Two-part BBC documentary about Alfred Russel Wallace with Bill Bailey

 

Part 1. Wallace in Borneo

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h4ViNumnAFw 

 

Part 2. Wallace in the Spice Islands  

  

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8VaefYfY1L0

 

 

The Forgotten Story of Alfred Russel Wallace

 

Excerpt from a 2013 documentary by David Attenborough

    

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cpOJPIdYN5I 

 

 

Wallace and Darwin

How They Differed

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xJFBSoJE67I

 

 

Unveiling Wallace's Statue

 

Natural History Museum

 

London

 

Bill Bailey and David Attenborough 

 

2013

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L3cR26RDOC4

 


 

Alfred Russel Wallace

 

A journey into adventure, discovery, and evolution

 

Lecture by Greg Bole

 

U. of British Columbia, Canada 

 

2014

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aAOxyblM7Wc

 

 

 
 

 

 

Related image

Geologic Time Scale

 



 

File:Biological classification L Pengo vflip.svg


 

 

 

Origin of Life


 

Stromatolites in Shark Bay, Western Australia

 



 

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Stromatolites are the earliest fossil evidence of life.  



 

 

Stromatolites are sedimentary rocks formed by blue-green algae.

 



 

            Classifying and Charting Life

 

 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

Trilobite (Anomalocaris)

 

http://www.trilobites.info/anohome.html

 

http://www.trilobites.info/triloclass.htm

 

 

 

First Life 

 

Documentary with David Attenborough 

 

Part 1. Arrival

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zVd3W3zmSzM

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xR-yMiyquG4

 

 


 

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Fossil of a trilobite

 

 


Fossils

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


22 March 2001

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00547d3

 

 

 



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The Cambrian Explosion

 

Image result for The cambrian explosion - chart

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 


 

The Cambrian Explosion/Period

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg, 17 February 2005

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003k9bg

 

 

 


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Image result for Velvet worm - first invertebrates to move from the sea onto land

A worm, like the velvet worm above, was one

of the first inverterbrates to move onto land


 

 

First Life 

 

Documentary with David Attenborough

 

Part 2. Conquest 

 

A worm with many legs, similar to the velvet worm or centipede, was one of the first invertebrates to move from the sea onto land   -   540 mya

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DsI8OgJNYAA

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r3CatRS4Hrw

 

 


 

Which animal was the first to go from water to land?

 

 

Fish evolved into amphibians that walked on land with fins and feet.

 

The Devonian Period: 419.2 MYA to 358.9 MYA

 

 


 

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Fish like Tiktaalik crawled on land with their fins


 

 

 

Image result for Ichthyostega

 

Fins evolved into feet. Acanthostega and Ichthyostega walked on land about 360 mya.


 

 

 

Image result for Ichthyostega

The Pedapis, which looked something like the Ichthyostega (about 1.5 metre long) in the picture above, is the earliest known animal to have climbed out of the sea and onto land.

 

 


New Frontiers

 

Part 3 of the six-part 2005 Canadian-Japanese documentary series Miracle Planet narrated by Christopher Plummer

 

The 260 footsteps of a four-legged amphibian found on the west coast of Ireland in 1992 are the earliest known fossil traces of a creature going from sea to land . . .'

 

The Pedapis was the first known animal to go from the sea to land   -   perhaps 348 mya . . . 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EgPAd9B6C_s


 

 

The Missing Link

 

2001 BBC Horizon documentary

 

How fish grew legs and climbed onto land

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJIQreNwP2o (42:45)

 

and a longer version, by NOVA  (52:55)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ny0wyTlyfsc 

 

 

 

Lost Worlds

 

4-part documentary series with David Attenborough

 

Part 1. Magic in Rocks

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cGS0pJHY4XY

 

Part 2. Putting Flesh on Bones

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NZdHjF2nmKs

 

 

For parts 3 and 4, see below

 

 

 

---------------

 

 

 



Rise of Animals

 

BBC documentary with David Attenborough

 

Episode 1

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDU4H9ES2sM

 

Episode 2

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nS3F1phYvUA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Evolution of Mammals

 

Two-part instructional video by a blogger

 

Episode 1. Meet the Synapsids

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1kZVPpMxyI8

 

Episode 2. The Complex Road to Endothermy

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2SoxS-Es9U

 

Both episodes, following automatically:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1kZVPpMxyI8&list=PL52505EA403F71B6F

 


 

PL3: MAMMAL EVOLUTION:

 

1. PELYCOSAUR THRU CYNODONT

 

SYNTHESIS 1

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=buWlUWeIjJI&list=PLA14EA5CF7E0208C2

 

2. PELYCOSAUR THRU CYNODONT

 

SYNTHESIS 2

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nI3klX-xbHQ&list=PLA14EA5CF7E0208C2

 

3. ADVANCED CYNODONTS

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IzIoyMD8UK8&list=PLA14EA5CF7E0208C2

 

 


 

The Five Major Mass Extinctions

 

99.9 % of all species that ever existed are today extinct; many perished in five mass extinctions  


 

 


 


The Five Major Mass Extinctions

 

1. Ordovician or Late Ordovician or Ordovician-Silurian (c. 438 mya) - 100 families extinct - more than half of the bryozoan and brachiopod species extinct

 

Caused by a dropping sea level as glaciers formed, followed by a rising sea level as glaciers melted

 

2. Late Devonian (ca. 360 mya) - 30% of animal families and 60% of marine genera extinct

 

Cause unknown; possibly a drop in temperature caused by glaciation; and possibly meteorites

 

3. End of the Permian or Permian-Triassic (c. 245 mya) - Trilobites, 50% of animal families, 95% of all species, many trees extinct

 

Cause unknown; possibly a comet or asteroid, or a volcanic eruption perhaps caused by the comet or asteroid, and the spread of lava from the Siberian Traps, causing a drop in oxygen in the sea

 

4. Late Triassic or End of Triassic (c. 208 mya) - 35% of animal families, most early dinosaur families, most synapsids extinct; but many mammals survive

 

Caused by the eruption of lava in the Atlantic that broke Pangaea apart and opened the Atlantic and perhaps led to a rise in temperature. 
 
5. Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary (c. 65 mya) - half of life, including dinosaurs, plesiosaurs, pterosaurs, mosasaurs, ammonites, many families of fishes extinct; but many mammals survive

 

Caused probably by the impact of a big asteroid in the Gulf of Mexico or the spread of basalt lava from volcanic eruptions in the Deccan Traps of central India.

 

 

 

The Permian Mass Extinction

 - 251 mya

 

The Third and Biggest Mass Extinction

 


Image result for gorgonopsian

 


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The Gorgonopsian (271 - 252 MYA)

was five to eleven feet long.



Image result for gorgonopsian





Image result for gorgonopsian

Gorgonopsian skeleton

 

 

Description:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6HLIHew0Tk

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lXXdRdsKcCE


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2jWcjVEWYMY

 

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The Gorgonopsian was wiped out by the Permian Mass Extinction 

 


 

PERMIAN MASS EXTINCTION

 

The Day the Earth Nearly Died

 

Nova Horizon documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Ps0h_oXQkQ

 

 


The Great Dying

 

Episode 5 of the documentary series Animal Armageddon

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xVz7a8Kkg1Y

 

 


 

The Permian-Triassic Boundary

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


2007

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b007r285

 

 



 

Permian-Triassic boundary 252 MYA

 

 


 

 

 



 

Permian - Triassic boumdary

 

 

 

Dinosaurs

 

248 - 65.5 million years ago  

 

 

 

 

Image result for dinosaur timeline

Image result for dinosaur timeline

 



Triassic Period

The Earth 220 MYA, in the Late Triassic Period. 



 

Pterosaur

 

228  -  66 mya

 

The Pterosaur, a reptile, the first known flying vertebrate, lived 228 to 66 million years ago


 

 

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A fossil of an early long-tail Pterosaur in Bavaria



 

 

 


 

 

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The large short-tail Pterosaur ruled the sky 80 million years ago

 

 

Image result for Quetzalcoatlus

The giant Pterosaur Quetzalcoatlus lived 100 - 66 MYA.


 

 

Flying with Dinosaurs

 

BBC documentary with David Attenborough (1984)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tVP-CnHYli0

 

 

Flight of the Pterosaurs

 

Episode from the documentary series Paleoworld (1994)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFCIc2gfJk

 

 

Flying Monsters

 

Documentary with David Attenborough (2011)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEqTKNc3hA4

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IRpCKNyRz_o

 

 

Pterosaurs

 

Episode from the documentary series Sky Monsters

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_zm5cgprhRM

 

and

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uVt2z4nQoFw

 

 




Plesiosaurus

 

208.5 - 66 mya

 

Related image

 

 



Related image

 





 

 Jurassic Period

Earth in the Late Jurassic Period 161 - 146 MYA



 

Brontosaurus

 

157.3 - 145 MYA

 

 

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Brontosaurus


 

 

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Brontosaurus skeleton

 

 

 

 

Stegasaurus

 

155 - 150 MYA

 

 

Image result for Stegosaurus

Stegasaurus


 

 

Image result for Stegosaurus skeleton

Stegasaurus skeleton

 



 


Related image


Early Cretaceous Period 146 - 100 MYA



 

Sarcosuchus

 

145 to 93 MYA

 

Image result for paleocene crocodile

Sarcosuchus

 

 

 

Argentinosaurus

 

100 - 90 MYA

Believed to be the biggest dinosaur ever.

 

130 feet long



 

Image result for Argentinosaurus

Artist's conception of Argentinosaurus


 

 

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Reconstructed skeleton of Argentinosaurus

 

 

New Giants

 

Episode 5 of BBC documentary series Planet Dinosaur

 

Faulty upload

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=914iENJsHMA

 

Which dinosaur was the biggest?

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-i0dMOJWek 

 

Comparing dinosaur sizes

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rRiecAmGWHU

 



 


Cretaceous Period


The Earth in the Late Cretaceous Period (Turonian) 90 MYA




 

Parasaurolophus

 

76.5 - 73 MYA

 

 

Image result for Parasaurolophus

Parasaurolophus

 


 

Image result for Parasaurolophus

Parasaurolophus skeleton

 

 

 

 

Tyrannosaurus Rex

 

83.6  -  65.5 MYA

Image result for Dinosaur  

Tyrannosaurus Rex

 


 

Image result for T-Rex fossil skeleton

T-Rex skeleton

 


 

Image result for The Dinosaur - T-Rex

The Tyrannosaurus Rex

 

 

 

Image result for T-Rex

The Tyrannosaurus Rex

 

 

 

Deinosuchus

 

80 - 73 MYA

 

 

 



 

 

Image result for paleocene crocodiles - Deinosuchus skeleton

 



 

 

Image result for paleocene crocodiles - Deinosuchus skeleton

 

 

 

Mystery of the Jurassic

 

2002 BBC documentary on the evolution of the dinosaurs

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nKnuG1HjNJg

 


 

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What happened to the dinosaurs?

 

The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Mass Extinction - 65.5 mya

 

The Fifth and Last Major Mass Extinction

 

There are numerous theories on the cause of the last major mass extincton and the disappearance of the dinosaurs.  

 

The most popular theory is that a giant meteor crashed into the Earth and caused a mass extinction, wiping out all the dinosaurs, 65 million years ago.


 

 

 

 

 

Related image

 

 

 

 

Scientists point to a 65-million-year-old geological strata (called the KT boundary) that indicates a cataclysm at the time. There are dinosaur fossils below this level but not above it.


 

 

KT boundary

 

 

However, since mammals and dinosaurs inhabited the earth at the same time and many mammals survived, along with many smaller reptiles, like crocodiles, the meteorite theory must be reconsidered. 

 

There are other theories: extreme volcanic activity; marine regression; extreme climate change with increasingly hot or cold temperatures; world-wide fires; disease; all of these . . .    

 


 

Deccan Trap - Volcanoes

 

 

Marine Regression

 

 

Cooling temperatures

 

 

Extreme heat

 

 

Fires across the world

 

 

A restoration of a Tyrannosaurus called 'Peck's Rex' showing lesions in the jaw and mouth. From the PLoS One paper.
Disease

 

 

A blogger lists the various theories and explains the KT boundary:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZTK3UqXhP4

 

 

The KT boundary, by another blogger:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j5f238uDzvI&feature=related

 



 

 


KT Boundary

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


2005

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003k9d0

 

 

Extinction and Rebirth

 

Part IV of the 6-part 2005 documentary series Miracle Planet (in HD) narrated by Christopher Plummer 

 

The documentary considers the possibility that extreme heat and a low oxygen level made life impossible for dinosaurs.  

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YAGGQ9gzbx0 


 

 

Dinosaur

 

Part 3 of 4 of the documentary series Lost Worlds with David Attenborough

 

The documentary suggests that a change in the earth's climate, with a big gradual increase in temperature over a long time, eventually made life impossible for huge land animals. 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lJMeX4aPQGc


 

 

Dinosaur Doomsday

 

Documentary from the Paleoworld series

 

(in 3 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_LOxhrS3fIc&feature=related

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UqMbVSG-A9c&feature=relmfu

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rPyJerSPb7E&feature=relmfu

 

 

 

The last day in the life of the last dinosaur

 

Documentary plays up the meteorite theory

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EzvDat00ZzU

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lMzfNTu6SCc

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5gqq2rgOmi8

 

 

What really killed the dinosaurs?

 

BBC documentary discounts the meterorite theory

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g08QOlkEmUQ

 

 

Dinosaur Secrets - Armaggedon

 

Documentary mentions several dinosaur extinction theories

 

2 parts:

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1xh8ZBrHsnY

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v_5OGojMq_Q&feature=relmfu

 


 

Rite of Spring

 

Segment from Walt Disney's animated movie Fantasia (1940) with Igor Stavinsky's Rite of Spring (1913) by the Philadelphia Orchestra conducted by Leopold Stokowski (1939)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EiAFUJ4Shao

 

Catastrophism

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


2014

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03s9tlz

 


 

Some dinos had feathers

 

The Dinosaur that fooled the world

 

2002 BBC Horizon documentary discusses the theory that dinosaurs survived the cataclysm and evolved into birds

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pUuhhe0VMr8&feature=related

 

 


 

Image result for Feathered dinosaur

Changyuraptor, a non-avian dinosaur


 

 

 

 

 

 

Feathered Dinosaurs

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC redio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Mike Benton, Steve Brusatte and Maria McNamara

 

26 October 2017

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b099v33p

 

 

 

Did Tyrannosaurus Rex have feathers?

illustration of the feathered tyrannosaur dinosaur by Lida Xing and Yi Lui

Tyrannosaurus Rex with feathers

 

 

Some maintain that the T-Rex had feathers. Others maintain that the T-Rex had scales.

 

 

Pre-historic Monsters Revealed

 

Documentary

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6zqDwu-dy0

 

 

 

 

 

Image result for The Earth is 4 billion years old! (hand holding sign post)


The Earth 65 MYA, at the end of the Cretaceous Period and the Mesozoic Era.







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Time scale since the extinction of the dinosaurs.


The Cenozoic Era  -  65 MYA to Present



Image result for timescale since the extinction of dinosaurs chart - cenozoic (paleocene to holocene)

 




 


 



 

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Rare Glimpses

 

Part 4 of 4 of the documentary series Lost Worlds with David Attenborough

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OgNavM1BOLU

 

 

 

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Tourist Souvenirs from Glenrose, Texas

 

Richard Dawkins considers the claim that humans coexisted with dinosaurs

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qvHII6Vv06s

 

 

 

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The only dinosaur thought to survive the dinosaur extinction is the avian dinosaur, or feathered dinosaur   -   the bird.

 

Many reptiles survived   -   like alligators and crocodiles.

 

Lizards and snakes survived.

 

Frogs and salamanders survived.

 

Turtles survived.

 

Crabs survived.

 

Sharks and many other fish survived.

 

The Platypus survived.

 

Mammals were small when dinosaurs ruled the earth. Many survived the extinction. Mammals grew and have dominated the earth since.  

 

 

 

 

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Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (P. E. T. M.)

 

56 MYA

 

 

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Dame Jane Francis, Mark Maslin and Tracy Aze

 

16 March 2017

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08hpmmf

 

 

 

Unearthing Ancient Climate Change

 

PETM

 

Uploaded by the American Museum of Natural History in 2013

 

"Fifty-five million years ago, a sudden, enormous influx of carbon flooded the ocean and atmosphere for reasons that are still unclear to scientists.

 

"What is clear is that as atmospheric CO2 content increased, the average global surface temperature rose 5°C to 9°C (9°F to 16°F).

 

"The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), as this global warming event is known, lasted upwards of 170,000 years and had dramatic impacts on living things both on land and in oceans.

 

"In this feature, a team of paleontologists, paleobotanists, soil scientists, and other researchers take to the field in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin to document how the climate, plants, and animals there changed during the PETM.

 

"Their work will help predict how our current global warming event could affect life on Earth." - Uploader

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEgcu27-kjk

 

also:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C9bfVKkqIoA

 

 

 

PALEOCENE-EOCENE THERMAL MAXIMUM:

 

FOSSIL MAMMALS

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lhyN2ZaSMCY

 

 

 

 


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 Related image

The Earth 50 MYA 



 

 

Diatryma Gigantea by SeanPhelan

Diatryma Gigantea

 

A giant flightless bird, inhabited much of the earth

 

56 - 45 mya

 


 

 

Image result for Diatryma Gigantea

 

Comparing the size of Diatryma

Gigantea with a modern human.



 


 

 

Related image

Sabre-Tooth Tiger


42 MYA to 11,000 years ago








Image result for entelodon


Entelodon




37.2 - 28.4 MYA




Image result for entelodon




 


 

 

Related image

Aegyptopithecus (Egyptian ape or monkey)

 

Lived in northern Egypt c. 30 MYA

 

The oldest monkey? The oldest ape?

 

Also called Aegyptopithecus zeuxis ("linking"), considered a possible common ancestor to monkeys and apes (and humans), linking the two. 









Image result for Paraceratherium

Paraceratherium

 

34 - 23 MYA


Image result for Paraceratherium





Image result for The Earth - 30 MYA Tectonics

The Earth 20 MYA



 

 

Image result for pliocene elephant

 





Sabre-toothed tiger - 42 MYA to 11,000 years ago


Mammoth - 5 MYA - 4,500 years ago


Wooly rhinoceros - 3.6 MYA - 8,000 years ago

Giant short-faced bear - 1.8 MYA - 11,000 years ago

 

Long-horn bison - 200,000 - 30,000/20,000 years ago

 



 

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Evolution of Man

                                  Geologic Clock

 

 

 

Related image

From the formation of the Earth to the evolution of Man

 

 

geologic time: geologic time scale

Geologic Time Scale

 

 

 

Image result for the modern theory of the descent of man
The Modern Theory of the Descent of Man
 
The chart displays 24 stages of evolution, from first life to man. The chart is read from top to bottom and left to right by number from 1 to 24.
 
The Modern Theory of the Descent of Man (1874), published by Ernst Haeckel in Anthropogenie oder Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen (1876).
 
 
 

 
 
Timeline of Human Evolution
 
From fish to man
 

 

 

                      Primates

 

 

Primates

 

What is a Primate?

 

Brief 2011 video

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BpnlS_ach-0

 
 
 
Prosimians. Monkeys and Apes
 
 
Related image

Chart

 

 

Primates

 

The Prosimians and Monkeys

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7cJrg5BzIbc

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 Prosimians

 

 

The Lemur

 

 

Image result for The Lemur