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12. Fördraget med England 1656

Treaty between Charles Gustavus King of Sweden , and Oliver Cromwell Protector of England: whereby the Treaty of Alliance made between those two States the 11th of April 1654, is confirm'd and explain'd. Done at London, 1656.

I Christiern Bonde, Free Baron of Layhela, Lord of Ymfisholm, Bordsoo and Springestadt, &c. Senator of the kingdom of Sweden, and of the most Serene and Potent Prince and Lord, the Lord Charles Gustavus, by the grace of God King of the Swedes, Goths, and Vandals, Great Prince of Finland, Duke of Esthonia, Carelia, Bremen, Verden, Stetin, Pomerania, Cassuben, and Vandalia, Prince of Rugen, Lord of Ingria and Wismar, also Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Duke of Bavaria, Juliers, Cleves, and Mons, and Ambassador Extraordinary from that Prince to the most Serene and most High Oliver Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions thereof, and to the republic of England; do hereby make known and testify to all and every one whom it concerns, or whom it may in any measure concern, That whereas in the treaty made at Upsal, the 11th of April 1654, between the most Serene and Potent Princess Christina, by the grace of God Queen of the Swedes, Goths, and Vandals, Great Princess of Finland, Duchess of Esthonia, Carelia, Bremen, Verden, Stein, Pomerania, Cassuben, and Vandalia, Princess of Rugen, Lady of Ingria and Wismar, and the kingdom of Sweden, and the said Lord Protector of the republic of England, &c. certain affairs, relating as well to the establishment of mutual friendship, as to the advantages of commerce and navigation, were deferred to a more convenient time. And whereas it hath seemed good to his said most Serene Royal Majesty of Sweden, to send me over to England, vested with sufficient powers to transact the same, and the other affairs which follow; therefore, after a conference with the Lord Commissioners of the said most Serene Lord Protector, viz. the most noble Lord Nathaniel Fiennes, one of the Keepers of the Great Seal, and of his Highness's Privy Counsellors, Sir Bulstrode Whitlock, Knight, one of the Commissioners of his Highness's Treasury, and Constable of Windsor Castle, and Walter Strickland, Esq; both members also of his Highness's said Privy Council, furnished with sufficient powers and commands for this purpose, and after we had mutually imparted our opinions, and maturely considered the following points, we agreed as is clearly and perspicuosly expressed in the words of the underwritten articles.

I. It shall be lawful for either of the confederates to raise any soldiers and seamen by beat of drum within the kingdoms, countries, and cities of either; and also to hire men of war and ships of burden, observing only the following conditions.

1. Whichsoever of the confederates desires to have a muster, he shall notify his intention to his ally, and specify the places in which he thinks such levies may most conveniently be made; and if the condition of the other ally will not permit that the levy should be made in that place, then the other, being so required, shall apooint another place more convenient for his purpose, and as little as possible to the detriment of both parties.

2. As to the number of soldiers to be raised, or of ships to be hired, regard shall be had to the affairs and circumstances of that confederate in whose kingdoms and dominions the musters are to be made; lest if a greater number of forces be required than is fitting, the other should find the want of them, or be disappointed of them for his own occasions.

3. When soldiers are raised in that country, they shall not take arms, nor so much as on board the ships, till they come within twenty leagues of the place where they are to be set ashore.

4. The colonels or captains shall raise no soldiers who are already entered into the pay of another king or state, nor shall they entice any from their colours.

5. The soldiers, sailors, and ships, raised or hired, as above, in the king-doms and countries of either of the confederates, shall not be raised against the friends or allies of the other, to the violation of the treaties concluded and now subsisting between one another and their allies.

II. Wheras in the XIth article of the treaty lately made at Upsal in 1654, betwixt England and Sweden, it was agreed and specified what goods and merchandize should hereafter be declared contraband and prohibited; it is now by virtue of the said article established, that only those hereafter mentioned shall be reckoned contraband and prohibited, and consequently not to be disposed of to the enemies of either, viz. bombs with their fusees and other appurtenances, fire-balls, gunpowder, matches, cannon-balls, spears, swords, lances, pikes, halberts, guns, mortars, petards, grenadoes, musket-rests, bandaliers, saltpetre, muskets, musket-balls, helmets, head-pieces, breast-plates, coats of mail, cuirasses, and the like kind of arms; soldiers, horses, with all their furniture, pistols, holsters, belts, and all other warlike instruments; and also ships of war. Money shall also be reckoned among the goods with which the enemies are not to be supplied, and which it shall not be lawful to carry to the enemies of either, any more than the things above mentioned, on the penalty of being made prize without hopes of redemption, if they are seized by either of the confederates. Nor shall either of the confederates permit that the enemies or rebels of the other be assisted by any of their subjects, or that their ships be sold , lent, or in any manner made use of by the enemies or rebels of the other, to his disadvantage or detriment.

III. But it shall be lawful for either of the confederates, and his people or subjects, to trade with the enemies of the other, and to carry them any goods whatsoever, which are not excepted as above, without any impediment: Provided they are not carried to those ports or places which are besieged by the other; in which case they shall have leave either to sell their goods to the besiegers, or to repair with them to any other port which is not besieged.

IV. Wheras in the XIth article of the treaty concluded at Upsal the 11th of April, 1654, between Sweden and England, it was agreed, that although it was precautioned and prohibited by the preceding articles, that either of the confederates should give aid and assistance to the enemies of the other, yet it ought not to be understood, that that confederate who is not involved in war with the enemy of the other, shall not be allowed to carry on  trade with the said enemy of that confederate: but it was only provided thereby, till there should be a farther agreement concerning this matter, thatno goods or merchandize which we commonly call contraband shall be carried to the enemy of the other, without danger of being made prize, and without hopes of redemption, if they are seized by the other confederate. In like manner, wheras by the XIIth article of the said treaty, for the evading of all suspicions, lest the navigation or commerce of one of the confederates, whether by land or sea, should be carried on during the war to the prejudice of the other confederate, or lest the goods of enemies should be carried under the disguise of the goods of friends, it was stipulated and concluded, that all ships, carriages, wares, and men, belonging to the other of the confederates, should be furnishedin their journey and passage with safe-conducts, commonly called passports, and certificates, signed by the chief governor or magistrate of that province and city from whence they came; and that those forms of the passports and certificates were to be observed on which the confederates should mutually agree on both sides; and when the merchandize, goods, ships, men of either of the confederates, and his subjects and inhabitants, shall meet or be met by the ships of war, public or private, or the subjects and inhabitants of the other confederate, in the open sea, straits, harbours, havens, lands, and other places, wheresoever or howsoever they shall come together, after producing only their safe-conducts and certificates nothing farther should be demanded of them, no inquiry whatsoever should be made into the ships, goods, or men, much less should they be injured, damaged, or molested but should freely let go to prosecute their journey and purpose, as is above signified.

And wheras by the XIVth article it was stipulated, that the said treaty and confederacy should derogate nothing from any preeminence of right and dominion whatsover of either of the confederates, in any of their seas, straits, and waters whatsoever, but that they should have and retain the same to themselves in as ample a manner as they had all along enjoyed them, and as by right to them belonged; Now therefore that a fitting draught of such certificates and passports may be formed and observed, which may be answerable to the meaning of the aforesaid articles, it is agreed and concluded on both sides, That for avoiding all frauds and concealments whatsoever of the enemies goods, and all occasions of quarrels as to any certificates and passports, such forms as are underwritten verbatim shall be observed, and subscribed and signed by the chief magistrate of that province and city from whence they come; that then the true names of the ships, carriages, merchandize, and masters of the ship be specified; as also the punctual days and times, without any fraud, together with other descriptions of that sort, which are expressed in the following form of a safe-conduct or certificate. Wherefore, if any person who shall declare upon the oath by which he is bound to his king, state, or city, that he has given in a true account, be convicted by sufficient proof of having concealed any fraud by his permission under his said declaration, he shall be severely punished as a transgressor of the said oath.

We N.N governor or chief magistrate of the province or city of N. (the title or office of the respective government of that place being added) do make known and certify, that on the        day of the month of           Ao            N.N.N citizens and inhabitants of N. and who are engaged and bound as subjects of his most Serene Royal Majesty of Sweden, and to our city, or of the most Serene Lord Protector our most gracious Lord, and to our city, personally appeared before us in the city or town of N. in the dominion (of his most Serene Royal Majesty of Sweden, or of the most Serene Lord Protector of England, just as it shall happen) and declared to us, that the ship or vessel called N. of                   about              lasts or tons, belongs to the port, city or town of N. in the dominion of N. and that the said ship does rightfully belong to him or other subjects of his most Serene Royal Majesty of Sweden, the most Serene Lord Protector of England; or expressing to whatever other nation they may belong, and that N.N.N. have declared upon their said oath that the said goods above specified, and no others, are already put on on board or are to be put on board the abovenamed ship for the said voyage, and that no part of those goods belongs to any one whatsoever, but the persons abovementioned; and that no goods are disguised or concealed therein by any fictitious name whatsoever, but that the merchandize abovementioned is truly and really put on board, for the use of the said owners and no others; and that the captain of the said ship named N.N is a citizen of the city of N.. Therefore wheras after strict examination by us the abovementioned (governor or chief magistrate of the city aforesaid) it fully appears that the goods on board the said ship or vessel are free, and do truly  and really belong to the subjects of his most Serene Royal Majesty of Sweden, or of the most Serene Protector, or to the inhabitants of other nations abovementioned; We do most humble and earnestly require it of all and singular the powers by land and sea, kings, princes, republics, and free cities; also of the generals of armies, admirals, commanders, officers and governors of ports, and all others to whom the custody of any harbour or sea is committed, which meet this ship in her voyage; or if she happen to fall in, among, or pass through their squadrons, or stay in their harbours, that for the sake of the treaties and friendship which subsist respectively between them, or whoever are his superiors, and the most Serene King of Sweden, or our most Serene Lord Protector, as they shall in like manner experience the same from our most Serene King, or our most Serene Lord Protector, and all his ministers and subjects in the like or any case. In witness thereof we have taken care that these presents signed by our hands be sealed with the seal of our city. Given at our court.

V. Neither of those confederates shall suffer the ships, vessels, goods, or merchandize of the other, or of his people or subjects, which are taken at sea or elsewhere by enemies or rebels, to be brought into their ports or dominions, but shall publicly forbid any thing of that kind to be done; and if any ships, vessels, goods, or merchandize of either, or of his people or subjects, taken at seaor elsewhere, shall be carried into the ports or countries of the other by any enemy or rebel of the confederates, or either of them, that confederate into whose harbour they shall be carried, shall not suffer the same or any part thereof to be sold in that port, or any other place in their dominion; but shall take care that the master of the ship or vessel so taken, as also the mariners and passengers, shall as soon as they arrive, be immedeiately set at liberty, together with all the prisoners, subjects of either kingdom or republic, as many as shall be brought thither; nor shall he permit the said ship and vessel to stay in that harbour, but shall command the said ship, with her goods, merchandize and lading, immedeiately to leave the harbour. Provided nevertheless, that nothing in this article be turned to the prejudice  of the treaties formerly entered into by either of the confederates with other nations; and where these things do not interfere, the above article shall remainin full force.

VI. It shall be free for the men of war and guard-ships of either of the confederates to enter into the ports, havens, or rivers of the other, where such ships use to repair, and there to cast anchor, stay, and to depart from thence without any injury or molestation; provided these conditions are observed.

1. That it shall not be free to carry into the harbours of the confederate any squadron, exceeding five or six ships, without giving some notice thereof beforehand.

2. That the commander of the squadron and ships shall without delay exhibit his letters of safe-conduct to the governor of the castle, fort, city, or province, or acquaint the magistrate of the place where he arrives with the resons of his coming, and for what end, and how long he designs to stay in that port or haven.

3. That such ships shall not come or stay nearer to those castles or forts than is convenient.

4. That the mariners, ships companies, and soldiers shall not go ashore in bodies above 40 at a time, nor in any number that may give suspicion.

5. That while they are there they shall not do any damage to any person, not so much as their enemies; and above all shall not stop or obstruct the passage of any merchant ships whatsoever, into or out of the harbour.

6. That they shall not leave their station for the sake of infesting the navigation of any nation whatever.

7. That they shall in all respects live and behave modestly, quietly, and conformably to the laws and customs of every place, and have special regard to the reciprocal friendship between the confederates. Where the terms aforesaid are rightly observed according to the true meaning of the words, it shall be lawful for the men of war of either confederate to keep upon  the coats, and continue in the harbours of the other confederate, whether for avoiding tempests or enemies, or for rendezvousing and assembling merchant ships, or any other just causes. But if either of the confederates shall think it advantageous or necessary to enter the ports of the other confederate with a greater number of ships, and to enjoy the conveniences thereof, he shall signify the same to his confederare two monts beforehand, during which time the ways and means of admitting the same shall be settled.

VII. Wheras it is provided by the aforesaid treaty at Upsal, that satisfaction   should be given for the losses which either of the confederates or his people or subjects sustained from the other, or his people or subjects, during the war between the Republic and the States if the United Netherlands, it is now agreed, that three commissioners shall be delegated and deputed on each side, who shall take cognizance of, and decide all those disputes; which commissioners shall meet at London, the first day of January next. And the three commissioners abovementioned, so chosen and deputed on both sides, shall have power to take all those things into their consideration which shall be exhibited or proposed on both sides, and which happened in the said period, as well concerning the restitution of the ships or goods hitherto detained, as the satisfaction for losses sustained by the detaining of the ships of either of the confederates, which are already or shall hereafter be released; or if it can be conveniently done in any other manner, they shall judge of them summarily,according to right or reason, without any appeal or forms of law; and both parties shall make it their chief  business and endeavour that what is just and right be transacted in the controversies aforesaid without any delay, and that what is taken away be restored, and satisfaction performed and made fully and really for the losses and expences, according to the tenor of the XIIIth article of the aforesaid treaty of Upsal. But if the said commissioners cannot agree in any reasons or foundations whatsoever of the proofs relating to such restitution or satisfaction, then those differences shall be left to another convention of the confederates. And that this may be done with the least loss of time, they shall use their endeavour to finish the cognizance of all these matters in question within six months after the first meeting; and the restitution and satisfaction for those losses shall be made and performed fully and without delay, within the space of a month after sentence is passed, by that king or state whose subjects shall be doomed to perform the satisfaction.

VIII. The subjects of the said most Serene Lord Protector and the said republic shall also hereafter enjoy all the prerogatives in the several branches of trade, which they used to carry on in Prussia and Poland, or elsewhere in the dominions of the said most Serene King of Sweden, which they enjoyed heretofore, in preference to other nations; and if at any time they desire farther privileges, their desires shall be gratified by all means possible: And if the said most Serene King of Sweden shall grant greater and more ample privileges than the abovementioned, in Poland and Prussia, to any nation besides, or people not subject to him, or shall suffer any nation or people to enjoy such larger privileges there, then the people and citizens of this republic shall enjoy the same privileges in all respects, after they have desired it of his most serene Royal Majesty. And moreover, if any edicts that have been published since 1650, happen to be burdensome to the English and Scots, dwelling or trading in Poland and Prussia, the same shall after this time be of no force, as far as it can be rendered so in the dominion of the most Serene King of Sweden; but the subjects of the said Lord Protector shall hereafter be entirely free from those burdens.

IX. As to the commerce to be carried on in America, it is expressly provided by law, that the subjects of no republic besides shall be impowered to trade there in common without a special license: but if any of the subjects of the most Serene King of Sweden, furnished with his recommendations, shall privately solicit such licence of the Lord Protector to trade to any of those colonies whatsoever, he will in this respect comply with the desire of his most Serene Royal Majesty of Sweden, as far as the state of his affairs and of the republic will for that time permit.

X. It shall be free for the subjects of the most Serene King of Sweden, to fish and catch herrings and other fish in the seas and on the coasts which are in the dominion of this republic, provided the ships employed in the fishery do not exceed a thousand in number: nor while they are fishing shall they be any ways hindered or molested; nor shall any charges be demanded on the account of the fishing by the men of war of this republic, nor by those who are commissioned privately to trade at their ownexpence, nor by the fishing vessels on the northern coasts of Britain, but all persons shall be treated courteously and amicably, and shall be allowed even to dry their nets on the shore, and to purchase all necessary provisions from the inhabitants of those places at a fair price.

XI. It is also agreed and concluded, that the present treaty, and all and singular the things therein contained and included by the aforesaid ambassador of his said most Serene Royal Majesty of Sweden, and the commissioners of the most Serene Lord Protector, shall be confirmed and ratified within four months next ensuing (or sooner if possible) by the letters patent of the said King and Protector, sealed in due and authentic form with their great seal; and that the mutual instruments shall be exchanged on both sides within the term aforesaid.

In witness of all and singular the premises, we the commissioners of the most Serene and most High Protector of the republic of England, Scotland, Ireland, &c. by virtue of our aforesaid commission, or full powers, have signed the present treaty, consisting of eleven articles, with our hands, and sealed it with our seals. Done at Westminster July 17, Anno 1656.

Till detta avtal var också fogat en särskild deklaration undertecknad av de engelska förhandlarna. I denna förklarades att begreppet kontraband under det pågående kriget mellan England och Spanien också skulle omfatta varor som tjära, beck, hampa och andra skeppsförnödenheter. I det fall deklarationen inte accepterades av Karl X Gustav skulle England inte längre vara bundna av fördragets andra och tredje paragrafer, vilket i så fall skulle ha kunnat innebära ett totalstopp för svensk export till hela det spanska riket.

A Convention relating to the second Article in the Treaty
betwixt Sweden and England. Done at Westminster July 17, Anno 1656

WHEREAS in the second article of the treaty concluded at Westminster, anno 1656, betwixt England and Sweden, it is declared as a point agreed and ratified by the commissioners of the most Serene Protector, and by the lord ambassador of the most Serene King of Sweden, that only the goods, merchandize, and other things mentioned in that article, should hereafter be deemed as contraband, and publicly prohibited. And whereas the most Serene Lord Protector has proposed by his commissioners, and has stipulated with the aforesaid ambassador extraordinary, that as long as the war continues betwixt the English and the Spaniards, none of the goods and merchandize following shall, under a penalty to be hereafter expressed, be carried from the dominions of the most Serene King of Sweden, to any part of the Spanish dominions; and whereas to the intent that this might be granted with the more ease, it has been also proposed that a conference should be held for ascertaining the price to be given by the English merchants, for all those goods which shall come from the Swedish dominions; and whereas the aforesaid ambassador said he could not give his consent to the said demand, because he had it not in his instructions from his most Serene King, and therefore left it entirely to the discretion of his most Serene Majesty; it is declared by this writing, that the said second article, if the most Serene King will agree to and ratify it, shall be only ratified upon this condition., That as long as the war continues betwixt the republic of England and the Spaniards, neither his Swedish Majesty, nor any of his people, shall carry pitch, tar, hemp, cables, sailcloth, or masts, to any places in the dominions of Spain, but on the contrary, the said King shall most expressly forbid it; and if any such merchandize shall be carried thither contrary to this agreement, the same shall be liable to be seized by, and forfeited to the English. Wherefore it is most expressly provided, that if the said King shall not consent to it, then all the said second article relating to contraband goods (as also the third article which depends thereupon) shall immediately become of no force, and the question relating to the specification of contraband goods, shall remain in the state that it was before the time there was any treaty about it in London, nevertheless the rest of the articles shall remain in full force. And moreover, it is agreed and concluded on both sides, by virtue of the several powers granted to them, that although the present article be not inserted in the said treaty, it shall be the same force and virtue as the treaty itself. Done at Westminster, July 17, 1656.

Nathaniel Fiennes
Bulstrode Whitlock
Walter Strickland

Texten till fördraget finns på flera ställen, här hämtad från:

Cromwell, O., The writings and speeches..., vol. 4, / edited by W. C.  Abbott. - Cambridge, MA, 1947, s. 903-911


Karl X Gustavs trontillträde i juni 1654 innebar en omsvängning i svensk utrikespolitik. Utifrån den rådande situationen, inte minst i Östeuropa, rikets finansiella bekymmer och kungens makalösa energi och aktivistiska sinnelag växte stora drömmar fram: fullbordandet av det svenska Östersjöväldet på Polens bekostnad, senare rentav Danmarks fullständiga krossande. I denna väv av idéer och planer hade England en viktig plats som handelspartner och motvikt mot Nederländerna. Ja, kanske var landet rentav en tänkbar partner i ett styckande av Danmark?

Traktaten 1656 var en följd av att avtalet från 1654 lämnat vissa frågor öppna, exempelvis den principiellt mycket viktiga punkten om definitionen av "kontraband". Cromwell var välvilligt inställd till det protestantiska Sverige och Karl X Gustavs angrepp på Polen fick honom att associera till Gustav II Adolfs ingripande i 30-åriga kriget. Om Karl X Gustav behövde Cromwell, vad kunde han erbjuda i gengäld? Förmånligare handelsvillkor, en omläggning av handeln på Arkangelsk till en Östersjöhamn med vänligare klimat, en stark protestantisk vapenbroder. Inte särdeles mycket för att bidra till ett för England föga önskvärt totalt svenskt herravälde i Östersjöområdet, som dessutom säkert skulle leda till en ny konflikt med Nederländerna.

Denna 1656 års traktat blev därför ett blygsamt resultat av de svenska inviterna.

Källa: Den svenska utrikespolitikens historia I:3 : 1648-1697 / av Georg Landberg. -Stockholm, 1952 ; Swedish diplomats at Cromwell's court 1655-1656 / translated and edited by Michael Roberts. - London, 1988.


©Bengt Nilsson

Senast uppdaterad: maj 05, 2003.

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