Gustaf von Psilander : inledning

1669-1703 : uppväxt,
ungdom och tidiga karriär

Konvojerna : den historiska bakgrunden

Konvojerna 1703-1704


vägen mot toppen

1716-1734 : landshövding och riksdagsman

1734-1738 : president i

Den "private" Psilander

"Kuriosa- kabinettet"

Gustaf von Psilanders familj

Legenden skapas : 1700- och 1800-talen

12. Fördrag mellan Sverige och England 1654

I. That from henceforth there be and remain a good, firm, sincere, and perepetual Peace, Amity, Alliance, and Correspondence between the Protector and Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Queen and Kingdom of Sweden, and all and singular their Dominions, Kingdoms, Countries, Provinces, Islands, Plantations, Lands, Cities, Towns, People, Citizens, and generally all their Subjects and Inhabitants, so that each part treat and use the other with all real friendship and affection.

II. The said Confederates, their People, Subjects, and Inhabitants shall, as opportunity is offered, take care of and promote the welfare of each other; and shall advertise each other, upon knowledge thereof, of all imminent dangers, plots, and conspiracies of Enemies against the other; and as much as in them lies, oppose and hinder the same. Neither shall the one Confederate, either by himself, or any else, treat of, act, or attempt anything to the prejudice and disadvantage of the other, his Lands, or Dominions, in whatsoever place, whether at sea or land; nor shall any way assist the Rebels or Enemies of the other, to the damage of the Confederate, nor receive or entertain within his Dominions any Rebel or Traitor who shall attempt anything against the other's State, much less afford them any counsel, help, or favour, or permit it to be done by any of his Subjects, People, and Inhabitants.

III. The said Protector and Commonwealth, and the said Queen and Kingdom, shall take diligent care, that, as much as in them lies, all impediments and obstacles be removed, which have hitherto interrupted the freedom of navigation, and commerce, as well between both Nations, as with other People and Countries within the Dominions, Lands, Seas, and Rivers of either, and shall sincerely endeavour to assert, maintain, defend, and promote the aforesaid liberty of navigation and commerce, against all the Disturbers thereof, by such ways and means, as either in this present Treaty, or hereafter shall be agreed upon; neither shall they suffer, that either by themselves, their Subjects and People, or through their default, anything be done or committed contrary hereunto.

IV. That either of the aforesaid Confederates, their People and Subjects, may, without any Safe Conduct, Licence, general or special, freely and securely go and enter by land or sea, in and to the Kingdoms, Countries, Provinces, Lands, Islands, Cities, Villages, Towns, whether walled or unwalled, fortified, or otherwise, havens, and whatsoever Dominions of the other, and there stay and from thence return or pass through; and in the same places, upon just prices to procure, and have provision of victuals, for their use and sustenance, and to be used with all friendly offices, and that either Confederate, their People and Subjects, may trade have commerce in all places where commerce hath hitherto been exercised, in what goods and merchandises they please, and may freely import and export the same, paying the Customs which are due; and confirming themselves to the Laws and Ordinances of the said Commonwealth and Kingdom, whether the same respect trade or any other right; which presupposed, the People, Subjects, and Inhabitants of both Confederates, shall have and enjoy in each other's Kingdoms, Countries, Lands, and Dominions, as large and ample privileges, relaxations, liberties, and immunities, as any other Foreigner at present doth, or hereafter shall enjoy there.

V. No Merchants, Captains, and Masters of Ships, Mariners, nor any Persons, Ships, goods, or merchandise, belonging to either Confederate, shall upon any public or private account, by virtue of any Edict general or special, within any the Lands, Havens, Sea-roads, Coasts, or Dominions of the other, for any public service or expedition of War, or any other other cause, much less for any private use, be seized, embarked, arrested, forced by violence or be any way molested or injured; provided only such arrests, as are conformable to justice and equity, be not hereby prohibited, so be it they are made according to the ordinary course of Law, and not granted upon private affection or partiality, but are requisite for the administration of right and justice.

VI. In case any of the Ships of either Confederate whether of War or Merchants, belonging to the Subjects and People of either, be, by occasion of tempests, pursuit of Pirates and Enemies, or any other urgent necessity, constrained to put into each other's Havens, Roads, or Shores, they shall be received there with all kindness and humanity, and enjoy all friendly protection, and be permitted to refresh themselves and procure, at a reasonable price, all things needful for their sustenance, reparation, or use; neither shall they be hindered from going  out of the said Ports or Roads, at their pleasure, without paying any Customs or Duties; provided they do nothing contrary to the Laws, Ordinances, and Customs of the place, which the said Ships shall enter into or abide in.

VII. In like manner, if any Ship or Ships, whether public or private, belonging to either Confederate, their People and Subjects, shall, within any the Coasts or Dominions of the other, stick upon the sands, or be forced to lighten their burden, or be wrecked   or suffer any damage, all friendly help and relief shall be given them upon a competent reward. And whatever shall be remaining of the goods thrown overboard or after shipwreck, or any other damage sustained, shall be kept in safe custody, and restored to the Owner, or whom the said Owner shall appoint.

VIII. In case the People and Subjects on either part, whether they be Merchants, Factors, or Servants, Masters of Ships, Mariners, or such others, who travel and inhabit within the Dominions of the other, or those who act on their behalf before any Court of Judicature for the recovery of their debts, or for other lawful occasions, shall stand in need of the Magistrate's help, the same shall be readily, and according to the equity of their cause, in friendly manner granted them, and justice shall be adminstered to them without long and unnecessary delays, neither shall they be any way molested upon any pretence in the dispatch of their affairs, in their journeying, bargaining, and receiving the price of their commodities, but that all love and friendship be extended towards them. And it shall be free for them, on both sides, in their passage to and again, in each other's Coasts, Ships, Havens, and public places, to wear about them arms for their proper defence, so be it they give no just suspicion to the Governor or Magistrate of the place, of any design against the public or private Peace. But he especially who behaves and demeans himself soberly and inoffensively, shall be protected from all injury, violence, and molestation.

IX. The said Confederates, and all and singular their People and Subjects, may buy and export out of all the Countries, Dominions, and Kingdoms of the other, all kind of armour and provision of War, and may safely and freely put in with their Ships, and arrive at each other's Ports, Havens, and Shores, and there stay, and thence depart, they carrying themselves peaceably and conformably to the Laws and Customs of the respective places, and not disturbing the freedom of commerce therein. In like manner, the Ships of War shall have free access to the Ports of either, there to stay, and come to anchor; but not in such numbers as shall occasion manifest suspicion, without the leave and consent of that Confederate first obtained to whom the Port belongs, unless compelled thereto by tempest, force, or danger of the Sea, in which case they shall signify to the Governor or Chief Magistrate of the Place, the cause of their arrival, and shall continue there no longer than the said Governor or Chief Magistrate shall permit. Observing always and everywhere the Laws aforesaid, and such as shall hereafter be agreed  upon.

X. The Subjects and Inhabitants of the Queen and Kingdom of Sweden, may safely and freely travel in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Dominions thereof, and pass through the same by sea or land, to any other Nations, freely to traffic and have commerce with them in all sorts of merchandise, and to import and export the same. And the People of the said Commonwealth shall enjoy the same freedom in the Kingdoms, Dominions, and Territories of the Queen and Kingdom of Sweden. Provided the Laws, Ordinances, and particular rights of each Nation concerning trade and commerce be observed on both sides.

XI. Although in the preceding Articles of the present Treaty, it be forbid to either Confederate, to yield any aid or assistance to the Enemies of the other: yet it is not to be so understood as if either Confederate having no War with the Enemies of the other, might not sail to, or traffic with the said Enemies, notwithstanding that the other Confederate be in actual War with them; but it is only provided, that till a more particular agreement be made concerning the matter, no goods called goods of Contrabanda, a catalogue and specification of which shall be made within 4 months after the date hereof, shall be carried to the Enemies of each other, without peril, in case they be taken, of being adjudged lawful Prize without hope of restitution.

XII. But lest such navigation and intercourse of one Confederate, his People and Subjects, by land or sea, with other Nations, during the War of the other Confederate, should redound to the prejudice of the said other Confederate; and lest goods of Enemies should pass concealed under the name of Friends; for the removal of all suspicion and prevention of fraud herein, it is agreed, that all Ships, waggons, wares, and Men, belonging to either Confederate, shall in their passage have Letters of safe conduct, commonly called Passports, and Certificates signed by the Governor or Cheif Magistrate of the Province or City from whence they come; of which Letters and Certificates such forms shall be observed as shall be mutually concluded upon, within the space of 4 months, next after the date hereof,: and whatsoever any the merchandise, goods, Vessels, or Men belonging to either, their People and Subjects, shall be met with either in open Sea or in any Channel, Haven, Road, Land, or any other place by the Ships of War, public or private, or by any of the People, Subjects, and Inhabitants of the other, or shall happen to be in one place with them, they producing their Letters of safe conduct, and Certificates aforesaid, shall have nothing farther exacted of them; no search made either of goods, Vessels, or Men, nuch less shall they receive any damage, injury, molestation; but shall be suffered to pass on with freedom to pursue their occasions. And if any of the People and Subjects of either shall do or commit anything contrary to the proper sense of this present Article, either Confederate shall take care that severe punishment be inflicted on the Offenders, and cause full and speedy satisfaction to be made to the Parties wronged, for all costs and damages.

XIII. In case it shall hereafter happen, that during this Amity and Confederation any of the People or Subjects of either shall act or attempt anything against the same or any part thereof, either by land, sea or other waters, this Amity, Confederation, and Alliance, shall not be thereupon interrupted or broken off, but shall remain and continue still in force and virtue; only in such  case, the particular Persons who have offended shall be punished, and no others; and that justice shall be done, and satisfaction made to all Persons injured within 12 months after demand thereof: and in case the Persons so offending as aforesaid shall not appear and submit themselves to justice, and make satisfaction within the said term, the said Persons shall be declared Enemies to both States, and their estates, goods, and effects whatsoever, shall be confiscated and employed to a due and full statisfaction for the wrong by them done; and their persons shall be liable to further punishment when they shall come within the power of either State, as the quality of their offence shall deserve, and that speedy restitution and satisfaction be made for the loss and damage which either part hath sustained from the other, during the War betwixt England and the United Provinces.

XIV. This present Treaty and Confederation shall in nothing derogate from any pre-eminence, right, or dominion of either Confederate within any his own seas, channels, or waters; but that they have and retain the same, in as full and ample manner as they have hitherto had, as of right belongs to them.

XV. It being the primary intent of this League and Amity that each Confederate, their People and Subjects, might enjoy such freedom of navigation and commerce, as is described in the foregoing Articles, within the Baltic, Sound, Northern, Western, and British Seas, Mediterranean, and Channel, and other the Seas in Europe; therefore all sincere endeavour shall be used on both sides by common advice, aid, and assistance, that the aforesaid mutual liberty of navigation and commerce be established, promoted, and, as occasion is, defended, against all the Disturbers thereof, who shall go about to interrupt, prohibit, hinder, or restrain and limit the same to their own will and pleasure, on prejudice of the said Confederates. And either part shall, with all willingness or readiness, promote the good and prevent the hurt of each other; saving the Treaties which either nation hath made with other Kingdoms, Commonwealths and Nations. And neither Confederate shall hereafter make any League or Agreement in prejudice of this Present, with any other People or Nation, without the privity and consent of the other; or if any such Agreement be hereafter made, the same shall be reputed null and void, and give place to this present Treaty. But as for the maner of giving aid  and assistance to each other for the defence of this League, and of the liberty of commerce and navigation, a more particular Agreement, as need shall require, shall be made thereupon, accomodated to the circumstances of time and other affairs.

XVI. For what concerns other commodities, which Ships of War may enjoy, and the Laws by which they shall regulate themselves when they arrive in each others's Ports and Harbours; and for what concerns commerce to be exercised in America, as also the advantages of the herring and other Fisheries, the erecting staples for trade, and other things and conditions, which shall be found requisite for the better clearing of the foregoing Articles, resolution shall be had therein according to what shall be agreed upon in a distinct and peculiar Treaty or Contract.

XVII. Whatever is agreed on in the foregoing Articles shall be in force and virtue from this present time, and be truly observed on both sides by all such as are within each other's allegiance. And for the further confirmation thereof, shall be subscribed, signed and ratified by the Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Dominions thereto belonging, in the name of His Highness, and the said Commonwealth, and by Her Majesty of Sweden, under the Hand-writing and Seals of Their said Highness and Majesty within 4 months next ensuing the date of these Presents.

Done at Upsal, the 11th of April 1654

Cromwell, O., The writings and speeches of Oliver Cromwell..., vol. III. - Cambridge, MA, 1945, s. 911-915


Sverige höll inledningsvis en negativ linje till revolutionens England, men på grund av den allmänna situationen i Europa skedde det under 1651 ett närmande mellan länderna. T. ex. så knöt Danmark allt närmare förbindelser med Nederländerna, något som gjorde England till en lockande bundsförvant. 1652 pågick diskussioner i London och i slutet av 1653 anlände den engelske statsmannen Bulstrode Whitelocke (1605-1675) till Uppsala, där hovet då vistades. Whitelockes dagbok, utgiven i svensk översättning (Dagbok över dess ambassade...) 1777, ger en fascinerande bild av det dåtida Sverige. Sålunda får vi veta att det i Västergötland på två ställen bjöds på kött från självdöda kor, "hvaraf doctorn trodde den opassligheten härröra, som besvärade Whitelocke och fler af sällskapet" (s. 157). Kriget mellan England och Nederländerna, närmast utlöst på grund av amiral Tromps vägran att stryka för en engelsk eskader under Blake i maj 1652, hade gjort Sveriges förhållande till de båda sjömakterna alltmer känsligt. Med sjökriget hade nämligen följt också ett handelskrig och neutrala svenska fartyg drabbades också av kaperier, se Pursche, W., Stockholms handelssjöfart och de engelska kaperierna 1652-1654 // Studier rörande Stockholms historia III. -Stockholm, 1966. - S. 112-180. Whitelockes förhandlingar ledde slutligen fram till denna traktat.

Källa: Den svenska utrikespolitikens historia I:3 : 1648-1697 / av Georg Landberg. - Stockholm, 1952.

(Under arbete)

©Bengt Nilsson
Senast uppdaterad: 2003-05-05 10:12

Föregående sida: 2.3.1. Fördrag mellan Sverige och England

Nästa sida: 1656 års fördrag