Gustaf von Psilander : inledning

1669-1703 : uppväxt,
ungdom och tidiga karriär

Konvojerna : den historiska bakgrunden

Konvojerna 1703-1704


vägen mot toppen

1716-1734 : landshövding och riksdagsman

1734-1738 : president i

Den "private" Psilander

"Kuriosa- kabinettet"

Gustaf von Psilanders familj

Legenden skapas : 1700- och 1800-talen



2:19.4. Fördraget mellan Sverige och England 6 januari 1700

Whereas, the most Serene and Potent Prince and Lord, Charles XII.., King of the Swedes, Goths and Vandals, Great Prince of Finland, Duke of Schonen, &c., and the Most Serene and Most Potent Prince and Lord, William III., King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c., for the demonstration and greater confirmation of a more intimate and mutual amity and sincere friendship, and for the augmenting and promoting the happiness and safety of the said Kings, their kingdoms and subjects, have thought fit that the former treaties, concluded between the renowned Kingdoms of Sweden and Great Britain, and the Kings, predecessors of the aforesaid Kings, shall be reassumed, renewed and amended. Therefore his Sacred Royal Majesty of Sweden, for the perfecting of so wholesome a work, has legally constituted and given sufficient power and instructions to the most illustrious and excellent Lord, Nicholas, Free Baron of Lillieroot, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the said Majesty to the States General of the United Provinces and his Sacred Royal Majesty of Great Britain, the most illustrious and excellent Lord, Sir Joseph Williamson, Knt., one of his Majesty's most Honourable Privy Council and his Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, who, after they had met and produced and exchanged their full powers at the Hague and held several conferences for that purpose, and after a mature consideration and examination of things in so weighty an affair, have agreed and consented to take for a basis and foundation the Treaty, concluded at Stockholm the 1st March, 1665, upon condition that forthwith and without any loss of time, a negotiation shall be entered upon at Stockholm by the Commissioners of both parties concerning those things which relate to the Commerce of both kingdoms and their subjects, and which make a part of the aforesaid Treaty of 1665 ; but, as to what concerns the mutual friendship, good correspondence and safety, the said Treaty made in 1665 shall be entirely confirmed and strengthened by this present Treaty, together with some additions and alterations, as by the following articles is more at large provided and concluded:-

(1.) There shall be between his Majesty of Sweden and the Kings, his heirs and sucessors, on one side, and his Majesty of Great Britain and the Kings, his heirs and sucessors, on the other, and their respective kingdoms and dominions, provinces, islands, territories, colonies, towns, villages, people, citizens and inhabitants and all their subjects and vassals whatsoever which are now, or hereafter shall be, as well in Europe as out of Europe, in all places both by sea and at land and fresh waters, a sincere, constant and perpetual friendship, alliance and good correspondence, so as that neither of the said Kings shall do any wrong to one another, or either of them to their respective kingdoms, provinces, colonies (wheresoever situate), and subjects, nor consent nor suffer any to be done by others, but shall show to one another a sincere affection and all manner of kindness and good will.

(2.) Both of the allies, their heirs and successors, shall be obliged carefully to cultivate and promote the interest and honour of each other, to discover and give early notice, as soon as it may come to their knowledge, of any imminent dangers, conspirations and hostile contrivances that may threaten either of the confederates, and as much as in them lies, oppose them and prevent and hinder them by their advice and power. And, therefore, neither of the allies shall by himself, or by any other wahatsoever act, treat or endeavour any thing that may be to the prejudice or damage of the other, their territories or dominions, in any places by sea and land, nor to favour in the least his enemies or rebels to the detriment of the other ally, nor to admit or receive any rebels and traitors into their countries much less to give or afford them any council, assistance or favour, nor suffer the same to be given them by their subjects, people or inhabitants.

(3.) And, that the aforesaid friendship and good correspondence may be daily cultivated to greater advantage and for the profit and benefit of both Kings, their kingdoms and subjects, and, that their safety may the better be taken care of and provided for, it is agreed on both sides, that the Most Serene and Most Potent Kings, and the Kingdoms of Sweden and Great Britain, shall be most closely united by a particular Defensive Treaty, as by these presents they are joined in a most firm alliance and oblige themselves to defend each other, their kingdoms, dominions, provinces, states and subjects in possession of their rights, liberties, navigation and commerce, as well in the Baltic Sea, the Sound and Belt, as in the North Sea, The Western British Seas commonly called the the Channel, as also the privileges and prerogatives of either of the confederates, which they claim as well by contracts and allowed customs, as by the law of nations and hereditary rights, against all invaders, aggressors and disturbers by sea and land in Europe, as is more particularly declared hereafter.

(4.) If it, therefore, should happen that his Majesty, the Kings, his heirs and successors, and the Kingdom of Sweden is invaded, infested and disturbed in Europe by any king, prince, state or republic, one rebel or more or any malicious persons, one or more, in the kingdoms, countries, provinces, islands or dominions, as well within as without their kingdoms, as also in the countries in Germany belonging to the Kings and Kingdom of Sweden, as also in the possession of their prerogatives, privileges and independent rights, or shall any other way whatsoever be disturbed and molested in the liberty of navigation and commerce in the aforesaid seas and narrow seas ; his Majesty of Great Britain, the Kings, his heirs and successors, shall be obliged, after a previous due demand, to assist the King and Kingdom of Sweden, the Kings, his heirs and successors, against such aggressors, disturbers and rebels, with an army consisting of six thousand foot, upon the conditions and in the manner as hereafter shall be more at large declared.

(5.) In like manner, if it should happen that his Majesty of Great Britain, the Kings, his heirs and successors, and the Kingdoms of Great Britain, should be invaded, infested or disturbed in Europe by any king, prince, state, republic, rebel, one or more, or any malicoius person, one or more, in his kingdoms, countries, provinces, islands and dominions belonging to the Kings and Kingdom of Great Britain and the rights thereto appertaining, or any otherwise molested and hindered in the freedom of navigation and commerce in the aforesaid seas and narrow seas, the King of Sweden, the Kings, his heirs and successors, and the Kingdom of Sweden, shall be obliged to assist his majesty of Great Britain, the Kings, his heirs and succesors, after due requistion and demand, with an army consisting of six thousand foot, upon the conditions and in the manner as hereafter shall be specified.

(6.) And, mention being made in the 2nd article of rebel or rebels, both allies have thought it necessary further to explain hereby the said term, viz., That whosoever is declared a rebel or traitor by letter sent by either of the confederates to the other, he of the confederates to whom the letter shall so be sent, shall immediately repute the declared rebel as such, and whatsoever has been agreed on by this Treaty to be done against the rebels of each other shall be put in execution.

(7.) But, before the auxiliary troops are sent, the sufferer shall acquaint the other ally with the violence and injury done him, and then both confederates shall endeavour to persuade the invader or disturber, in a friendly manner, to desist from such violence and injury that it may not be necessary to take up arms. But, if the offender is so obstinate that by a friendly way he cannot be brought to an equitable agreement, and, therfore, the injured and wronged ally is obliged to have recourse to force in his own defence, in order to prevent any further disturbance, then shall the aforesaid troops be sent without delay, and shall not be withdrawn till entire satisfaction is given to the party offended, because in such case, he that by injuries forces another to stand upon his lawful defence, is to be reputed the aggressor.

(8.) The aforesaid auxiliary forces shall be sent within four months to be reckoned from the first day of the notification given or demand made, or sooner if possible, and that the demandant shall desire it, (although at the same time the ally called upon is employing his good offices in consequence of this Treaty towards a friendly accomodation), and brought into a place where there is a convenient harbour and of easy access, which the demander of the succours shall name, and they shall there be maintained at the charge of him that sends them till a peace is obtained, or as long as he that desires them shall think them useful and necessary for him, yet so as the demander in the meantime shall take care that the said auxiliary forces may have provisions and all other necessaries for food and clothing in his countries at reasonable rates and as his own troops are furnished.

(9.) It shall, however, be left to the choice of either ally, and especially to him that requires the succour, whether he will have the above-mentioned army entire, or only part of it in soldiers or warlike preparation, ammunition, provision, ships and such things as are necessary to fit them out, making an estimate of 4,000 dollars a month for every thousand men as long as the war lasts, and the Commissioners of both parties shall, without delay, fairly agree upon such an estimate.

(10.) But if, by reason of some danger, the auxiliary troops cannot come without opposition to the place where they are to be employed by the demander, both confederates shall be obliged to use their endeavours to facilitate and secure their passage, and the party required shall have leave to to put the said troops under the command of an officer of his own, and that they may, as far as the state of the war will permit, remain together in one body, which is to be understood, that they shall not be separated into places too remote one from the other, but the commander or general appointed for the said auxiliary forces, shall in the actions of the war be subject to the military command of the party to whom the succour is sent, or his chief general, and whatever relates to the march of the troops, the method of acting, or any other accidental things whatsoever, shall be so ordered as is usual in war ; and, where auxiliary forces are employed, the like shall be observed, if it should happen that ships should be sent in the place of land soldiers, which ships being in the nature of auxiliaries shall be obliged to carry the flag of that party that desires them.

(11.) But, if it should fall out that by reason of the greatness of the danger, the forces agreed on should not be sufficient, as in case the aggressor should receive assistance from some of his confederates, then each of the allies shall be obliged, being beforehand desired in due manner, to succour the party wronged with greater force, such as he can conveniently and safely bring together, both by sea and land, but, in that case, the particular manner of the assistance shall be treated of between the confederates as soon as may be, according to the nature and exigency of affairs.

(12.) It shall be also unlawful to either of the confederates and their subjects to bring their men-of-war into each others' ports to winter there, stay and enjoy the immunities and privileges of the said ports ; provided that those who are not common enemies be not molested within the ports, or at the entrance of them, whereby trade to the said ports might be hindered or destroyed. And the said confederate Kings having reciprocally agreed to enter into a particular negotiation at Stockholm concerning navigation and commerce, the same shall be forthwith proceeded in and concluded there without delay. In the meantime and until the said negotiation be finished, the articles of the Treaty of Alliance, concluded at London, in the year 1661, concerning navigation and commerce shall remain in full force, as if they were inserted here word for word.

(13.) But those things which are recited in the beginning of the foregoing article, shall in no wise be granted to the enemies of either of the confederates, nor shall it be lawful for the subjects of either of them to give assistance to the enemies of the other, to the prejudice and disadvantage of his confederate, neither shall they serve them in any manner either by sea or land as soldiers or mariners, and this shall be forbidden them under the severest penalties.

(14.) This present Treaty of Alliance, concluded between the Most Serene Kings of Great Britain and Sweden, shall not in any way lessen the prerogative, rights and dominions of the seas of either of the confederates, that is to say the dominions of the King of Great Britain in those seas commonly called the British Seas, and the dominion of the King of Sweden in the Baltic Sea, but each of the confederate Kings shall retain all the premises, with all their dependencies for the future, in the same manner as they do now, and shall freely enjoy the same without any molestation, which yet is to be understood on both sides with a saving to this present Treaty of Alliance.

(15.) When the party required shall in the aforesaid manner have sent the succours, or have saitisfied his obligation according to this Treaty, it is necessary that care should be taken of him and of his safety, and, therefore, it is agreed on both sides that, if the confederate who sends the succours, which are are to be under the command of the demandant, shall be permitted to remain in the condition of an auxiliary, and that by reason of the succours lent, he be not involved himself in the war, no treaty of peace or truce shall be concluded, or even any long cessation of arms that may be hurtful to the other confederate, shall be made without his being included and secured thereby, but, if by reason of of the succours lent, he should be engaged in an open war with the aggressor or any other whatsoever, then neither of them shall, without the advice and consent of others, enetr into any preliminary or principal treaty with the enemy or enemies, but all things shall be done and treated by joint negotiation, communication and council, until a sufficient security and due satisfiction be fully given by common consent to each of the confederates. In the first place, that confederate who was first engaged in the war shall not be permitted to change the war for peace, before the other confederate, who, by virtue of the Treaty of Alliance has given assistance to his confederate, be indemnified in all things by the enemy, or at least fully restored to his former state which he enjoyed or of right ought to have enjoyed, before the war began, in case his state and condition had suffered any detriment from the enemy or by the ensuing war.

(16.) This condition is expressly added to what is aforesiad concerning the giving assistance at the request of the confederate, that, if it happen that either of the confederate Kings be called upon shall be engaged in a war against the common enemy or be attacked by any other neighbouring king, prince, or state in his own kingdoms and provinces, so as the person required takes the same for a real war, for diverting of which the demandant himself would otherwise by virtue of this Alliance be obliged to send succours, then the other confederate who is so attacked shall not only be freed during that invasion with which he is oppressed from giving the promised succours, but also, if any of his auxiliary troops have, at the request of the other confederate, been sent before the invasion, he may, after notice thereof three months before, recall hem for the defence of himself and his kingdoms.

(17.) And, although the confederates are obliged to send succours to each other in the manner before mentioned, yet that obligation shall by no means be extended so far as that therefore all friendship and mutual commerce with the enemies of the other confederate and their subjects should be immediately broken off and prohibited. For the case happening that one of the confederates, although he has upon notice given sent his succours, should not himself be involved in the war, his subjects and people shall have the freedom of trade and navigation with the enemies of that confederate who is at war, and they shall be likewise permitted to carry directly to the enemy with safety, all sorts of goods that are not expressly prohibited and called contraband as shall be agreed more particularly in a special treaty of commerce hereafter to be made.

(18.) And wheras it seems necessary, for preserving the freedom of navigation and commerce in the Baltic Sea, that there should be a firm and strict friendship and agreement between the Most Serene and Powerful Kings of Sweden and Denmark, of glorious memory, who reigned at that time, did not only reciprocally oblige themselves by the public convention of peace, made in the camp before Copenhagen, the 27th May, 1660, and by the ratifications thereof exchanged on both sides faithfully and inviolably to observe all and every the articles and clauses comprehended in the said conventions, but also did declare a little before the Treaty of Alliance between England and Sweden, concluded in the year 1665, to the the Most Serene and Powerful prince, Charles II, King of Great Britain, of glorious memory, then reigning, that they would sincerely and bonâ fide stand to the conditions, and all and every the articles of pacification often before mentioned, and that they would not in the least recede from the tenor of the said conventions, made at the camp near Copenhagen, the 27th May, in the year 1660, with all and every the articles, parts and clauses of those conventions, in a special instrument of guarantee, a little after the conclusion of the Swedish and English Treaty of Alliance, made the 1st day of March, 1665, namely on the 9th day of October in the same year, and declared himself protector and guarantee of those conventions and every the articles comprehended therein, to all which, when a later Treaty of Peace was added between those Serene and Powerful Kings of Sweden and Denmark, concluded at Lunden, in Schonen, which contains an express repetition and confirmation of the transactions of Roschild, Copenhagen and Westphalia. Therefore, the Most Serene and Powerful King of Great Britain, by virtue of this Alliance, binds himself and promises on the word of a King, that if, contrary to expectation, either of the Kings shall presume, either by himself or others, privately to contrive and design or openly undertake by any disturbance, injury or force of arms, anything to the prejudice of all the conventions or one or more of the articles contained therein, and consequently to the detriment of the persons, provinces, territories, islands, effects, dominions and rights, which by the conventions, so often mentioned and made in the camp near Copenhagen, the 27th of May, in the year 1660, and afterwards at Stockholm, the 3rd day of July, in the same year, concerning the exchange of the Island of Bornholme, as also the Peace since made at Lunden, in Schonen, in the year 1679, were given to everyone of the parties comprehended in the said conventions, then the Most Serene and Powerful King of Great Britain, for the mutual and constant preservation of the friendship between both Kings of Sweden and Denmark, or the principals concorned in the conventions, shall first by his interposition amicably deploy all the good offices of a confederate King, which may conduce to the observance of the often repeated conventions and every the articles contained therein, and consequently the preservation of the peace between both Kings. And, if afterwards he of the two Kings who is author of such prejudices, or of any molestation and injury committed against the aforesaid convention, or any article contained therein, being warned of it, will not desist from those prejudicial attempts, and the violation of the conventions, the Most Serene and Powerful King of Great Britain, as surety and gurantee of those conventions of peace and all and every the articles contained therein, shall, by virtue of this Alliance and Engagement, assist the injured party, so far and in such manner as is concluded and agreed in such case by this present Convention between the Kings of Great Britain and Sweden.

(19.) Moreover, there shall be for the future a stricter alliance and union between the aforesaid Kings of Great Britain and Sweden for the defence and preservation of the evangelical and reformed religion of the Protestants and of all things relating thereunto, which, with the Divine assistance, they do, by these presents, promise and oblige themselves to maintain, protect and preserve.

(20.) And whereas, both the aforesaid Kings do hereby own themselves to be still engaged by some other conventions and alliances formerly made with others, which they are also willing duly to observe according to the meaning of those conventions, but that they are no ways bound at this time be these conventions, or any the clauses contained therein, which may, or can in the least weaken or obstruct this Alliance, and, therefore, that the mutual faith of the confederates and their steadiness in this society may the more appear, and that the minds of their subjects and friends may be settled, both the aforesaid Kings do mutually oblige themselves and declare, that they will sincerely and faithfully observe all and singular the articles of this Alliance, and not depart in the least from the genuine and common sense of the aforesaid articles under any pretence of advantage, friendship, former alliance, convention and promise, or any colour whatsoever, but that they will most readily, effectually and fully put in execution by themselves, or their ministers and subjects, ass occasion shall require, all things which they have promised in this Treaty, and without any limitation, exception or excuse, excepting only those things which are expressed in the foregoing articles of this Treaty of Alliance.

(21.) This Treaty of Defensive Alliance shall last eighteen years, before the end of which, the confederate Kings may again treat touching the further continuance thereof, if they find it convenient.

(22.) And wheras these Conventions have been concluded by virtue of the powers and orders given on both sides, so ought they to be approved and ratified in due and solemn form by their Sacred Royal Majesties, the Kings of Great Britain and Sweden, and the instruments of ratification shall be exhibited, viz., the English instrument to his Sacred Majesty the King of Sweden's Minister, at London ; and the Swedish instrument to his Sacred Majesty of Great Britain's Minister, at Stockholm, within the space of two or three months from the time of the signing thereof, or sooner, if it be possible.

For the greater certainty and confirmation of the premises, two copies of this Treaty are made ; one of which the aforesaid Ambassador Extraordinary of his Sacred Majesty of Sweden has signed ans sealed at the Hague, and the other the aforesaid Ambassador Extraordinary of his Sacred Majesty of Great Britain has signed and sealed at London,

and that on one and the same day, viz., 6/16 of Janr., in the year 1700.


The Manuscripts of the House of Lords
Vol. IV (new series), 1699-1702
London, 1908
s. 240-247

Bengt Nilsson

Senast uppdaterad: april 13, 2000.
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