Gustaf von Psilander : inledning

1669-1703 : uppväxt,
ungdom och tidiga karriär

Konvojerna : den historiska bakgrunden

Konvojerna 1703-1704


vägen mot toppen

1716-1734 : landshövding och riksdagsman

1734-1738 : president i

Den "private" Psilander

"Kuriosa- kabinettet"

Gustaf von Psilanders familj

Legenden skapas : 1700- och 1800-talen

12. Passformuläret

1661 års fördrag, artikel 12

Art. 12. But lest such navigation and intercourse of the one Confederate, his People and Subjects, by land or sea, with other Nations, during the War of the other Confederate, should redound to the prejudice of the said other Confederate; and lest goods of Enemies should pass concealed under the name of Friends; for the removing of all suspicion and prevention of fraud herein, it is agreed that all Ships, waggons, ware, and men belonging to either Confederate, shall in their passage have Letters of Safe Conduct, commonly called Passports and Certificates, whereof the hereunder written forms shall be word for word observed, and subscribed and signed by the Chief Magistrate or Head Commissioners of the Customs and Imposts of the Province and City whence they come, and the true names of the Ships, carriages, wares, Masters of the Ships, shall be specified, the days also and times, together with such other descriptions as are expressed in the following form of a Certificate, shall without any fraud be particularized, Wherfore, if any one who upon the faith of the oath, whereby he is bound to his Prince, State, or City, shall affirm, that he hath alleged nothing but the truth, and afterwards be convicted of wilful fraud in that allegation, he shall be punished with severity, and as a Person guilty of the breach of that oath.

Form of Passport

We, N. N., Governor or Chief Magistrate, or Commissioners of the Imposts and Customs of the City or Province of N. [putting the title or office of the respective Government of that Place] do certify, that upon the ......... day of the month of ......... in the year of our Lord .........., N. N. N. Citizens and Inhabitants of N. and Subjects of His Majesty the King of Great Britain, or the King of Sweden, (as the case shall happen,) did personally appear before us in the City or Town of N. under the Dominion of His Majesty the King of Great Britain, or of His Majesty the King of Sweden, and did there there upon the faith of that oath, whereby they are bound to His Majesty the King of Great Britain, our Most Gracious Sovereign, or to His Majesty the King of Sweden, our Most Gracious Sovereign, and to our City, declare that the Ship or Vessel called N. of N. ...... lasts or tons, doth belong to the Port, City, or Town of N. of the Dominion of N and that the said Ship does properly and of right appertain thereunto, or the Subjects of His Majesty the King of Great Britain, or the King of Sweden, but now from the port N. is bound for N. freighted with the goods following, wiz., [here let the goods be specified, with their quantity and quality, for example, about so many loads or packs, about so many hogsheads, &c., according to the quantity or condition of the merchandise shall be,] and did affirm upon the aforesaid oath, so much N. of the said goods and merchandise to belong to the Subjects of the King of Great Britain, or of the King of Sweden, or so much N. unto N. N. N. N. [let it be expressed of what Country the Owners be] and that N. N. N. upon the oath aforesaid alleged, that the said goods above specified, and no others, were put, or to be put on board the said Ship for that voyage, and no part thereof belongeth to any other than the persons aforesaid; and that therein there are no other goods hidden under any false or counterfeit name whatsoever, but that the aforesaid merchandise were truly and really for the use of the said owners and Proprietors, and no others; and that the said Master of the Ship, named N. is a Citizen of N. Wherefore, since upon strict inquiry it is manifest to us [the Governor, Chief Magistrate, or Commissioners of the Customs of the City aforesaid] that the said Ship, or Vessel, and goods are free, and do really and truly belong to the Subjects of His Majesty of Great Britain, or His Majesty of Sweden, or the aforesaid Inhabitants of other Countries; We do, with all respect, humbly desire all Powers by land or sea, Kings, princes, Commonwealths, Free Cities, as also all Generals, Admirals, General Offficers, Governors of Ports, and all others, to whom the guard of any Port or Sea is committed, who shall happen to meet this Ship under sail, or into whose Fleet she shall fall, or in whose Ports she shall happen to stay, that in regard to the Friendship and Alliance which is between every of them, or their Superiors, and His Majesty of Great Britain, our Most Gracious Sovereign, or His Majesty of Sweden, our Most Gracious Sovereign, that they would not only suffer and permit the said Master with the Ship N. the Persons, goods, and merchandise belonging thereunto without any let or hindrance, freely to make his voyage, but also (if he think convenient to go anywhere else from the said Port) that they would do him all civil offices, as a Subject of His Majesty the King of Great Britain, or of the King of Sweden, expecting the like returns from His Majesty the King of Great Britain, or His Majesty the King of Sweden, his Officers and Subjects in the like or other case. In witness whereof, we have subscribed these Presents, and sealed the same with the common seal of our City. Dated, etc.

Whenever, therefore, any the merchandise, goods, Vessels, or Men belonging to either, their People and Subjects, shall be met with, either in open Sea, or in any Channel, Haven, Road, Land, or any other place, by the Ships of War, public or private, or by any the People, Subjects, and Inhabitants of the other, or shall happen to be in one place with them, they producing their Letters of Safe Conduct and Certificates aforesaid, shall have nothing farther exacted of them, no search made, either of goods, Vessels, or Men, much less shall they receive any damage, injury, or molestation, but shall be suffered to pass pass on with freedom to pursue their occasions. But if this stated and appointed form of Certificate be not produced, and there be just cause of suspicion, then the ship ought to be visited, which (it is to be understood) shall be allowed only in such and no other case. And if any the People or Subjects of either side shall do or commit anything contrary to the proper sense of the present Article, either Confederate shall take care that severe punishment be inflicted on the Offender, and cause full and speedy satisfaction to be made to the Parties wronged for all costs and damages.


Låt oss ta en titt på det pass, som enligt artikel 12, skulle följas ord för ord.

Vilka skulle utfärda passen? Jo,  "We, N. N., Governor or Chief Magistrate, or Commissioners of the Imposts and Customs of the City or Province of N."

I Sverige skulle det alltså betyda guvernörer, magistraten i stapelstäderna eller lokala tullmyndigheter. Detta följdes inte. Hur den exakta gången var i de tyska och baltiska provinserna när der gällde pass som utfärdades av guvernörerna vet jag inte. I det egentliga Sverige utfärdades i alla fall de latinska passen av Kommerskollegium, efter insända attester från stapelstädernas magistrater.

Det hetere vidare: "did personally appear before us in the City or Town of N". Detta följdes följaktligen inte heller. Redarna infann sig inte personligen inför Kommerskollegium, den passutfärdande myndigheten. I Calendar of State Papers 1694 finns ett referat av klagomål från Leijoncrona över hur den engelska prisdomstolen underkänner de svenska passen. I domstolens yttrande tycks man acceptera Kommerskollegiums rätt att utfärda pass, men enbart om redarna inställer sig personligen inför kollegiet. Har Sverige gått med på mer än man kan hålla - ja, då får väl avtalen omförhandlas, men man ska inte anklaga den engelska prisdomstolen för partiskhet. I samma anda är ett annat utlåtande från prisdomstolen i november 1694: "All passes are to be made in the form prescribed by the treaty and subscribed by the Chief Magistrates and Commissioners of the Customs, the persons interested having to appear before the magistrates granting the pass. Utfall's consignement of starch was not named in the pass nor were the quantities of the other goods specified." (1)

I ett brev från George Bramston vid den engelska prisdomstolen från 1 augusti 1704, sannolikt riktat till Robert Harley och refererat i Portland papers,  vol VIII, s. 139, sägs att inte ett enda av de svenska fartyg som uppbringats haft pass och andra handlingar enligt 1661 års formulär. Dels handlade det uppenbarligen om proceduren vid passens utfärdande, men också att de svenska passen inte innehöll de detaljerade uppgifter om lasten - kvantitet och kvalitet - som passformuläret stipulerade.

På engelsk sida hade man självklart också ett intresse av att minska den svenska exporten till Frankrike. Om tjäran, hampan och järnet hamnade i England i stället kunde bara vara positivt för krigsutvecklingen.

(1) Historical Manuscripts Commission, Report on the manuscripts of the Marquess of Downshire... - vol. 1. - London, 1924, s. 452

(Under arbete)

©Bengt Nilsson
Senast uppdaterad: 2000-07-30 13:13

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